Nov 30, 2010

Surah An Nur سورة النور - Translation by Sheikh ul Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri

القرآن الكريم
Al Quran Nul Karim

Surah An-Nūr
(The Light)
سورة النور


Translation in English by 
Sheikh ul Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri

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بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

1. سُورَةٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهَا وَفَرَضْنَاهَا وَأَنزَلْنَا فِيهَا آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَO
1. This is a (great) Sura which We have revealed and We have made its (Commandments) obligatory. And We have sent down in it clear Revelations so that you may take direction and guidance.
2. الزَّانِيَةُ وَالزَّانِي فَاجْلِدُوا كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا مِئَةَ جَلْدَةٍ وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُم بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلْيَشْهَدْ عَذَابَهُمَا طَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَO
2. Whip a hundred lashes each, the (unmarried) adulteress and the adulterer (on validation of adultery in accordance with conditions of statutory [hadd] punishment. If married, then both are to be stoned to death). And you should not feel even the slightest pity for both of them (in executing the command of Din [Religion]) if you have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And a (sizeable) party of Muslims should be present on (the occasion of) award of punishment to both of them.
3. الزَّانِي لَا يَنكِحُ إلَّا زَانِيَةً أَوْ مُشْرِكَةً وَالزَّانِيَةُ لَا يَنكِحُهَا إِلَّا زَانٍ أَوْ مُشْرِكٌ وَحُرِّمَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَO
3. An adulterer does not (like to) marry (a chaste and virtuous woman) but only an adulteress or a polytheist, and no (pious man likes to) marry an adulteress (too) but only an adulterer or a polytheist. And this act (adultery) has been forbidden to the Muslims.
4. وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَاجْلِدُوهُمْ ثَمَانِينَ جَلْدَةً وَلَا تَقْبَلُوا لَهُمْ شَهَادَةً أَبَدًا وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَO
4. And those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), then fail to produce four witnesses, whip them eighty lashes (as qadhaf — punishment for false accusation) and never accept their evidence. And it is they who are the evildoers,
5. إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌO
5. Except for those who repent after this (false blaming) and mend their ways. Then Allah is verily Most Forgiving, Ever-Merciful. (They will not be counted among the disobedient, but this will not exempt them from hadd al-qadhaf [the penalty for false accusation].)
6. وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ أَزْوَاجَهُمْ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ شُهَدَاءُ إِلَّا أَنفُسُهُمْ فَشَهَادَةُ أَحَدِهِمْ أَرْبَعُ شَهَادَاتٍ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الصَّادِقِينَO
6. And those who accuse their wives (of adultery) and have no witnesses except themselves, the testimony of such a person would be to swear (himself) four times by Allah that he is truthful (in his accusation),
7. وَالْخَامِسَةُ أَنَّ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كَانَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَO
7. And the fifth time (to say) that Allah’s curse be upon him if he is a liar.
8. وَيَدْرَؤُاْ عَنْهَا الْعَذَابَ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَرْبَعَ شَهَادَاتٍ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَO
8. And (similarly) this can avert punishment from that (woman as well) if she (herself) gives evidence, swearing four times by Allah that he (the husband) is a liar (in accusing her),
9. وَالْخَامِسَةَ أَنَّ غَضَبَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا إِن كَانَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَO
9. And the fifth time (to say) that Allah’s wrath be upon her (i.e. me) if he (the husband) is truthful.
10. وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ حَكِيمٌO
10. And had there not been Allah’s Grace and Mercy upon you (then you would have been more perturbed under such circumstances) and Allah is surely Most Relenting, All-Wise.
11. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاؤُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِّنكُمْ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَّكُم بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُم مَّا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّى كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌO
11. Surely those who fabricated the accusation (against ‘A’isha the truthful, the pure, the chaste — may Allah be well pleased with her) were (also) a party from among you. Do not consider this (slander account) as a bad thing for you. It has rather (turned out to be) good for you. Everyone of them has a share in the sin as much as he has earned it, but whoever has had major share in this (false accusation), for him is a terrible torment.
12. لَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ ظَنَّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بِأَنفُسِهِمْ خَيْرًا وَقَالُوا هَذَا إِفْكٌ مُّبِينٌO
12. Why did it not happen that when you heard of it (the slander) the believers, both men and women, would think good of their own people and say: ‘This is obviously a fabricated accusation (based on falsehood)’?
13. لَوْلَا جَاؤُوا عَلَيْهِ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَإِذْ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِالشُّهَدَاءِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَO
13. Why did these (slanderers) not produce four witnesses to this (turmoil)? Since they could not bring forth witnesses, it is certainly they who are liars in the sight of Allah.
14. وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِي مَا أَفَضْتُمْ فِيهِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌO
14. And had there not been Allah’s Grace upon you and His Mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, severe torment would have afflicted you for promoting that (slander) into which you rushed headlong.
15. إِذْ تَلَقَّوْنَهُ بِأَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَتَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِكُم مَّا لَيْسَ لَكُم بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَتَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّنًا وَهُوَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌO
15. When (hearing this matter from one another) you brought it on your tongues and uttered with your mouths something about which you (yourselves) had no knowledge, and you took (propagation of) this matter as inconsiderable, whereas in the Presence of Allah it was a grave (offence underway).
16. وَلَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُم مَّا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَن نَّتَكَلَّمَ بِهَذَا سُبْحَانَكَ هَذَا بُهْتَانٌ عَظِيمٌO
16. And when you heard of this (heinous charge), why did you not declare (at the same moment): ‘It is not (at all justified) for us to talk about it’? (Rather you should have said: ‘O Allah,) Holy are You (High above making such a woman the beloved wife of Your beloved and Esteemed Messenger). This is a grave charge.’
17. يَعِظُكُمُ اللَّهُ أَن تَعُودُوا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَO
17. Allah admonishes you never ever to repeat such a thing (in your lifetime), if you are believers.
18. وَيُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌO
18. And Allah explains to you the Revelations with utmost clarity. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
19. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَO
19. Indeed those who like that lewdness should spread among the Muslims, for them is agonizing punishment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows (the intentions of such people) and you do not know.
20. وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ وَأَنَّ اللَّه رَؤُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌO
20. And had there not been Allah’s Grace and His Mercy upon you (for the sake of the Holy Prophet, you too would have been destroyed like the former communities). But Allah is Most Clement, Ever-Merciful.
21. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَمَن يَتَّبِعْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَإِنَّهُ يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ مَا زَكَا مِنكُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَبَدًا وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌO
21. O Believers! Do not follow the footsteps of Satan, and whoever follows the footsteps of Satan, then he (Satan) certainly commands to practise (and promote) immorality and sinful deeds. And if there had not been Allah’s Grace and His Mercy upon you then none of you would ever have been pure (from the stain of the sin of slander). But Allah purifies whom He wills and Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
22. وَلَا يَأْتَلِ أُوْلُوا الْفَضْلِ مِنكُمْ وَالسَّعَةِ أَن يُؤْتُوا أُوْلِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌO
22. And (now) those of you who are exalted (Din —Religionwise) and affluent (worldwise) must not swear that they will not provide (financial help) to the relatives, the needy and the emigrants (who were involved in this offence of false accusation). They should forgive (their misconduct) and overlook (their mistake). Do you not like that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
23. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌO
23. Verily those who falsely accuse chaste believing women who are unaware of and unacquainted (with even the very idea of indecency and evil) are cursed in this world and in the Hereafter. And for them is woeful punishment,
24. يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَO
24. On the Day when their (own) tongues and their hands and their feet will bear witness against them for whatever they used to do,
25. يَوْمَئِذٍ يُوَفِّيهِمُ اللَّهُ دِينَهُمُ الْحَقَّ وَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُO
25. On that Day Allah will pay them full recompense that they truly deserve (for their deeds). And they will come to know that Allah is (Himself) the Truth (and also) the Revealer (of the Truth).
26. الْخَبِيثَاتُ لِلْخَبِيثِينَ وَالْخَبِيثُونَ لِلْخَبِيثَاتِ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِينَ وَالطَّيِّبُونَ لِلطَّيِّبَاتِ أُوْلَئِكَ مُبَرَّؤُونَ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌO
26. Unclean women are (particular) for unclean men while unclean men are meant for unclean women. And (likewise) clean and chaste women are (specific) to clean and pious men while clean and pious men are exclusively for clean and chaste women. (So keeping in view the holiness, sanctity and purity of the Holy Prophet, you yourselves could imagine how pure, wholesome and chaste a wife Allah would have raised for him.) These (pure, innocent and divine people) are totally free from these (slanders) which these (foul-mouthed) people are levelling. Forgiveness and bestowal of honour and dignity have been (destined) for them. (Why do you ruin your life after death and earn disgrace and humiliation by denigrating his glory?)
27. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّى تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَى أَهْلِهَا ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَO
27. O Believers! Do not enter houses other than your own until you obtain their permission. And greet their residents (immediately after you enter). This (advice) is better for you so that you may contemplate (its rationale).
28. فَإِن لَّمْ تَجِدُوا فِيهَا أَحَدًا فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهَا حَتَّى يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ وَإِن قِيلَ لَكُمُ ارْجِعُوا فَارْجِعُوا هُوَ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌO
28. Then, if you do not find anyone in these (houses), do not enter them until you are granted permission (for that). And if it is said to you: ‘Go back,’ then do go back. That is purer for you, and Allah is Well Aware of what you do.
29. لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ مَسْكُونَةٍ فِيهَا مَتَاعٌ لَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَO
29. There is no sin on you if you enter (without permission) those houses (or buildings) which are not any permanent residences (such as hotels, roadhouses and inns). You have the right to get benefit therein. And Allah knows (all) that you disclose and that you conceal.
30. قُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ذَلِكَ أَزْكَى لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَO
30. Direct the believing men to keep their eyes always lowered and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Surely Allah is Well Aware of the (works) which they are busy doing.
31. وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَائِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَائِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَائِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ أَوِ التَّابِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُوْلِي الْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ أَوِ الطِّفْلِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَى عَوْرَاتِ النِّسَاءِ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَO
31. And direct the believing women that they (too) must keep their eyes lowered and guard their chastity, and must not show off their adornments and beautification except that (part of it) which becomes visible itself. And they must keep their veils (and head-coverings) drawn over their chests and breasts (too), and must not display their adornments (to anyone) except their husbands, or their fathers or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers or the sons of their brothers or the sons of their sisters, or (the women of) their (own faith, the Muslim) women or their female slaves or such male servants as are free from any lust and sexual urge, or the children who (being minor) have (yet) no sense of women’s private parts. (They too are exceptions.) Nor must they (while walking) strike their feet (on the ground in such a manner that ornaments jingle and) thus get revealed and known which they are keeping hidden (under the command of Shari‘a). And turn to Allah all of you in repentance, O believers, so that you may prosper (by implementing these Commandments).
32. وَأَنكِحُوا الْأَيَامَى مِنكُمْ وَالصَّالِحِينَ مِنْ عِبَادِكُمْ وَإِمَائِكُمْ إِن يَكُونُوا فُقَرَاءَ يُغْنِهِمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌO
32. And marry those of your men and women who are leading an unmarried life (despite reaching the age of marriage), and also (marry) those of your male and female slaves who are capable. If they are poor, Allah will make them rich out of His Bounty and Allah is Most Infinite, All-Knowing.
33. وَلْيَسْتَعْفِفِ الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ نِكَاحًا حَتَّى يُغْنِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَالَّذِينَ يَبْتَغُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِمَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا وَآتُوهُم مِّن مَّالِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي آتَاكُمْ وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاءِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَ تَحَصُّنًا لِّتَبْتَغُوا عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَن يُكْرِههُّنَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مِن بَعْدِ إِكْرَاهِهِنَّ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌO
33. And those who cannot afford marriage (for lack of financial means) should adopt chastity until Allah enriches them out of His Bounty. And from among (the male and female slaves) under your control those who seek to write out a deed (of manumission — freedom through earning and paying,) write it for them, and free them (under the given condition) if you see any good in them. Pay them (also yourselves) out of that wealth which Allah has given you (to help them get freedom). And do not force your maids into prostitution if they desire to keep themselves chaste (or wish to safeguard their chastity through marriage). And whoever will compel them, then (even) after they are compelled Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
34. وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ آيَاتٍ مُّبَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَثَلًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَO
34. And surely We have sent down to you evident and enlightening Revelations and some examples of those who have passed away before you (i.e. like ‘A’isha’s story, the story of Maryam [Mary] and the story of Yusuf [Joseph]). And (this) is for the direction and guidance of the Godfearing.
35. اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌO
35. Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The likeness of His Light (which is glowing in the world in the form of Muhammad’s Light) is as a niche-like (sacred breast) wherein is glowing the lamp (of Prophethood), the lamp contained in a crystal globe (the radiant heart of Muhammad). This globe is (as dazzlingly bright owing to reflection of Allah’s Light) as a glittering star. (This lamp of Prophethood) is lit with the sacred olive tree (i.e. either due to the blissful communication of divine Revelation from the Realm of Divinity or owing to the blissful genealogical tree of the Prophets and the Messengers). It is neither (merely) eastern nor western (rather universal and cosmic in its generously infinite luminosity. The likeness of this lamp of Prophethood is as if) its oil (i.e. Light, due to its genuine and inherent potential capability) is glowing, though no fire (or the radiation of celestial miracles and divine revelation) has even touched it yet. (So it) is Light upon Light (i.e. the Light of Prophethood upon the Light of the Holy Essence, denoting a Self-embodying double Light). Allah takes to (the gnosis of) His Light whom He wills. And Allah explains similitudes for (the Guidance of) people and Allah is Well Aware of everything.
36. فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِO
36. (This Light of Allah illumines) such houses (mosques and centres) which Allah has ordained to exalt (i.e. enhance their esteem and honour) and remember His Name therein. (These are the houses) in which (Allah’s servants) glorify Him morning and evening.
37. رِجَالٌ لَّا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ يَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَالْأَبْصَارُO
37. (Blessed with this Light) are those servants of (Allah) whom neither trade nor sale diverts from the remembrance of Allah, and from establishing Prayer and paying Zakat (the Alms-due. Even while performing their worldly duties) they keep fearing the Day when hearts and eyes will (all) overturn (with terror),
38. لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍO
38. So that Allah may give them best reward for the (good) deeds they have done and may bestow upon them (still) more out of His Bounty. And Allah blesses with sustenance (and provisions) without measure whom He wills.
39. وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاءً حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِO
39. And the deeds of the disbelievers are like a mirage in a vast barren field which the thirsty one deems to be water, until when he gets near it he finds it to be nothing. (Likewise in the Hereafter) he would find Allah near him but Allah fully paid him back (in the world). And Allah is Swift in taking account.
40. أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُّجِّيٍّ يَغْشَاهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَا أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُّورٍO
40. Or (the disbelievers’ deeds are like) the darkness in a deep sea covered by a wave, rolled upon (yet) by another wave and above that are clouds. (This) darkness is (in layers) one over another. When (a person drowning into such a sea) stretches his hand out, (none) can see it. And he for whom Allah has not formed any light (of guidance), for him there is no light (anywhere).
41. أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَO
41. Have you not seen that (all) who are in the heavens and the earth glorify Allah alone, and the birds (too in the air around) with wings outspread (do celebrate His praise)? Each one knows his own mode of Prayer and praise (before the Presence of Allah). And Allah is Well Aware of the deeds they accomplish.
42. وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُO
42. To Allah alone belongs the sovereignty of all the heavens and the earth and to Him shall all return.
43. أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُزْجِي سَحَابًا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيْنَهُ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ رُكَامًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُ عَن مَّن يَشَاءُ يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْقِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِO
43. Have you not seen that Allah is the One Who drives the cloud (first) gently, then joins its (various pieces) together, and then forms them into layers upon layers? Then you see that from spaces between them rain issues forth and falls down. And He sends down hail from the clouds (looking) like snow-covered mountains in the same sky (i.e. atmosphere). And then He throws it down upon whom He wills and turns it away from whom He likes. (Moreover, He creates lightning from the same clouds.) It seems as if the flash of the lightning (of clouds) would (dazzle their eyes and) snatch their sight away.
44. يُقَلِّبُ اللَّهُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِّأُوْلِي الْأَبْصَارِO
44. And Allah turns about the night and the day (over each other). Surely there is (great) guidance in it for those who have reason and insight.
45. وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَابَّةٍ مِن مَّاءٍ فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَى بَطْنِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَى رِجْلَيْنِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَى أَرْبَعٍ يَخْلُقُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌO
45. And Allah has originated (chemical genesis of) every moving creature from water. So, some of them creep on their bellies, some walk on two feet and some others on four. Allah creates what He wills. Surely Allah has Absolute Power over everything.
46. لَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا آيَاتٍ مُّبَيِّنَاتٍ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍO
46. We have, indeed, sent down clear and enlightening Revelations (through which) Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.
47. وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعْنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّى فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَمَا أُوْلَئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَO
47. And they say: ‘We have believed in Allah and the Messenger and we obey.’ Then after (saying) this a group of them turns away (from their affirmation). And (in fact) these people are not (at all) believers.
48. وَإِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم مُّعْرِضُونَO
48. And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) that he may judge between them, a party of them turns away (from appearing before the Messenger [blessings and peace be upon him]).
49. وَإِن يَكُن لَّهُمُ الْحَقُّ يَأْتُوا إِلَيْهِ مُذْعِنِينَO
49. And had they been in the right, they would have come fast to him (the Messenger) most submissively.
50. أَفِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ أَمِ ارْتَابُوا أَمْ يَخَافُونَ أَن يَحِيفَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَرَسُولُهُ بَلْ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَO
50. Is there a disease (of hypocrisy) in their hearts? Or do they doubt (the majesty and glory of the Messenger)? Or do they fear that Allah and His Messenger will do them wrong? (Nay,) they themselves are the wrongdoers.
51. إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَن يَقُولُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَO
51. The only saying of the believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) in order that he may judge between them, is that they say: ‘We have heard and we (totally) submit to obey.’ It is they who will prosper.
52. وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَخْشَ اللَّهَ وَيَتَّقْهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَO
52. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) and fears Allah and adopts Godwariness for Him, it is they who will achieve their goal.
53. وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِنْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَيَخْرُجُنَّ قُل لَّا تُقْسِمُوا طَاعَةٌ مَّعْرُوفَةٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيْرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَO
53. And they swear most strongly (and solemnly) by Allah that if you order them, they shall certainly set out (for Jihad [the Sacred Struggle]). Say: ‘Do not swear. It is obedience that is (required) as per law. Allah is certainly Well Aware of the deeds you do.’
54. قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُم مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُO
54. Say: ‘Obey Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him), but if you turn away (from obedience) then (beware that) the Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) is simply responsible for the duty he is charged with and you are responsible for what you are charged with. And if you obey him you will be guided. And nothing is (obligatory) for the Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) but to convey (the Commands) clearly.’
55. وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُم فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَى لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَO
55. To those of you who believe and keep doing pious deeds Allah has given the promise (whose fulfilment and implementation is obligatory for the Umma [Community]): He will surely bestow upon them Khilafa (the trust of right to rule) as He granted (the right to) rule to those who were before them. And (through dominance and rule) He will strengthen and stabilize their Din (Religion) for them which He has liked for them, and (by this strength and rule) He will for sure change their former state of fear (which was due to their political, economic and social handicap) to that of peace and security. They will worship Me (fearlessly and) will not associate any partner with Me (i.e. will follow and obey only My Command and System). And after this whoever adopts ingratitude (i.e. aversion to and denial of My Commands) it is they who will be defiant (and disobedient).
56. وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَO
56. And establish (the system of) Prayers and (ensure) the payment of Zakat (the Alms-due) and accomplish (absolute) obedience to the Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) so that you may be granted mercy (i.e. the blessings of sovereign rule, stability, peace and security may endure and continue).
57. لَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مُعْجِزِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُO
57. And let it not occur to you at all that those who disbelieve and are ungrateful will make (Allah) powerless (to destroy them) in the earth. And Hell is their abode and the worst is that abode.
58. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِيَسْتَأْذِنكُمُ الَّذِينَ مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَبْلُغُوا الْحُلُمَ مِنكُمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ مِن قَبْلِ صَلَاةِ الْفَجْرِ وَحِينَ تَضَعُونَ ثِيَابَكُم مِّنَ الظَّهِيرَةِ وَمِن بَعْدِ صَلَاةِ الْعِشَاءِ ثَلَاثُ عَوْرَاتٍ لَّكُمْ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا عَلَيْهِمْ جُنَاحٌ بَعْدَهُنَّ طَوَّافُونَ عَلَيْكُم بَعْضُكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌO
58. O Believers! Your (male and female) slaves and your children who have not yet attained puberty must seek your permission (to come to you) on three occasions: (first) before Fajr (dawn) Prayer, (second) when you put off your clothes at noon (for rest) and (third) after ‘Isha’ (night) Prayer (when you go to bed for sleep. These are) the three (times) of privacy for you. Other than these (times), there is no sin on you or them (because during remaining hours they) keep coming and going frequently where you are from one to the other. That is how Allah makes clear the Revelations for you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
59. وَإِذَا بَلَغَ الْأَطْفَالُ مِنكُمُ الْحُلُمَ فَلْيَسْتَأْذِنُوا كَمَا اسْتَأْذَنَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌO
59. And when the children from among you reach puberty they must also seek your permission (to come to you) as (other elders) have been doing before them. That is how Allah makes clear His Commands for you. And Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
60. وَالْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُنَّ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌO
60. And there is no sin on those elderly house-confined women who have no desire (now) for marriage if they lay aside their garments (i.e. additional outer coverings), provided they (too) do not show their adornment. And if they are (more) committed to self-restraint (i.e. do not remove additional outer coverings as well) that is better for them. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
61. لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَى حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَن تَأْكُلُوا مِن بُيُوتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ آبَائِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ إِخْوَانِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَخَوَاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَعْمَامِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ عَمَّاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَخْوَالِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ خَالَاتِكُمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكْتُم مَّفَاتِحَهُ أَوْ صَدِيقِكُمْ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَأْكُلُوا جَمِيعًا أَوْ أَشْتَاتًا فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُم بُيُوتًا فَسَلِّمُوا عَلَى أَنفُسِكُمْ تَحِيَّةً مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُبَارَكَةً طَيِّبَةً كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونO
61. There is no restriction on the blind, nor any blame on the lame, nor is there any sin on the sick and nor (any harm) for you if you eat (food) from your own houses or from the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your fathers’ brothers, or the houses of your fathers’ sisters, or the houses of your mothers’ brothers, or the houses of your mothers’ sisters, or the houses whose keys are in your charge (i.e. whose owners have permitted you for any use. Nor is there any harm to eat food) from your friends’ houses. There is no sin on you whether you all eat together or separately. Then when you enter the houses greet (the members of) your (family) with the greeting of peace and security. (This) is a blissful and pure greeting from Allah. Thus Allah makes clear His Verses for you so that you may understand (the commands of the Shari‘a and manners of life).
62. إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِذَا كَانُوا مَعَهُ عَلَى أَمْرٍ جَامِعٍ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا حَتَّى يَسْتَأْذِنُوهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَأْذِنُونَكَ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِذَا اسْتَأْذَنُوكَ لِبَعْضِ شَأْنِهِمْ فَأْذَن لِّمَن شِئْتَ مِنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمُ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌO
62. The believers are only those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him), and when they are with you for some (collective) issue which brings (the people) together, then they should not go away from there (i.e. they should participate whole-heartedly to work for collective coherence and unity among the Umma [Community]) until they have obtained permission from you (owing to some special excuse. O Esteemed Prophet,) surely those who seek permission from you (believing your Majesty the Supreme and Ultimate Authority) it is they who are the believers in Allah and His Prophet. So when they seek from you permission (to go) for some affair of theirs, then (you are the Supreme Sovereign Authority). Grant leave whom you please and ask forgiveness for them from Allah (even on going away from your company by obtaining your permission, lest they should be seized even on that). Surely Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
63. لَا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُم بَعْضًا قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنكُمْ لِوَاذًا فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌO
63. (O Muslims!) Do not regard the calling of the Prophet among you like your calling of one another. (When calling the Holy Prophet is not like your mutual calling among you, then how can the Holy Personality of the Prophet be like yours?) Surely Allah knows those from among you (well) who slip away quietly (from the presence of the Holy Prophet) under the shelter of one another. So let those who go against the Messenger’s command (of veneration and devotion) feel afraid lest some trial should overtake them (here in the world) or a painful torment seize them in the Hereafter.
64. أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ مَا أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَيَوْمَ يُرْجَعُونَ إِلَيْهِ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌO
64. Beware! To Allah belongs (all) that is in the heavens and in the earth. He certainly knows your state of mind (i.e. state of belief or that of hypocrisy). And on the Day when they will be returned to Him, He will disclose to them what they used to do and Allah knows everything full well.

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Profile Of The Surah

Juz : 18 Surah No. :24 Surah:AN-NURNo. of Verses: 64


Name
This Surah takes its name, An Nur, from verse 35.

Period of Revelation
The consensus of opinion is that it was sent down after the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq and this is confirmed by vv. 11-20 that deal with the incident of the "Slander", which occurred during that Campaign. But there is a difference of opinion as to whether this Campaign took place in 5 A. H. before the Battle of the Trench or in 6 A. H. after it. It is important to decide this issue in order to determine whether this Surah was sent down earlier or Surah Al- Ahzab(XXXIII), which is the only other Surah containing the Commandments about the observance of purdah by women. Surah Al-Ahzab was admittedly sent down on the occasion of the Battle of the Trench. Now if this Battle occurred earlier, it would mean that the initial instructions in connection with the Commandments of purdah were sent down in Surah Al-Ahzab? and they were complemented later by the Commandments revealed in this Surah. On the other hand, if the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq occurred earlier, the chronological order of the Commandments would be reversed, and it would become difficult to understand the legal wisdom and implications of the Commandments of purdah.

According to Ibn Sa'd, the Campaign against Bani al Mustaliq took place in Shaban 5 A. H. and the Battle of the Trench in Zil- Qa'dah the same year. This opinion is based on some traditions from Hadarat Ayesha about the events connected with the "Slander" in which she refers to a dispute between Hadrat Sa'd bin 'Ubadah and Sa'd bin Mu'az. Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az, according to authentic traditions, died during the Campaign against Bani Quraizah, which took place immediately after the Battle of the Trench. It is, therefore, evident that he could not be present in 6 A. H. to take part in a dispute about the "Slander".

On the other hand, Muhammad bin Ishaq says that the Battle of the Trench took place in Shawwal 5 A. H. and the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq in Sha'ban 6 A. H. This opinion is supported by many authentic traditions from Hadrat Ayesha and others. According to these traditions, (1) the Commandments about purdah had been sent down in Surah Al-Ahzab before the incident of the "Slander", (2) the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab in Zil-Qa'dah 5 A. H. after the Battle of the Trench, (3) Hamnah, sister of Hadrat Zainab, had taken a leading part in spreading the "Slander", just because Hadrat Ayesha was a rival of her sister. All this evidence supports the view of Muhammad bin Ishaq.

Now let us consider the two opinions a little more closely. The only argument in favor of the first opinion is the mention of the presence of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in a dispute connected with the incident of the "Slander". But this argument is weakened by some other traditions from Hadrat Ayesha, in which she mentions Hadrat Usaid bin Hudair instead of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in this dispute. It may, therefore, be assumed that there has been some confusion regarding the two names in reporting the traditions. Moreover, if we accept the first opinion, just because of the mention of the name of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in some traditions, we encounter other difficulties that cannot be resolved in any way. For, in that case, we shall have to admit that the revelation of the Commandments of purdah and the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab had taken place even earlier than the Battle of the Trench. But we learn from the Qur'an and many authentic traditions that both these events happened after that Battle and the Campaign against Bani Quraizah. That is why Ibn Hazm, Ibn Qayyim and some other eminent scholars have held the opinion of Muhammad bin Ishaq as correct, and we also hold it to be so. Thus, we conclude that Surah Al Ahzab was sent down earlier than Surah An-Nur, which was revealed in the latter half of 6 A. H. several months after Surah Al Ahzab.

Historical Background
Now let us review the circumstances existing at the time of the revelation of this surah. It should be kept in mind that the incident of the "Slander", which was the occasion of its revelation, was closely connected with the conflict between Islam and the disbelievers.

After the victory at Badr, the Islamic movement began to gain strength day by day; so much so that by the time of the Battle of the Trench, it had become so strong that the united forces of the enemy numbering about ten thousand failed to crush it and had to raise the siege of Al Madinah after one month. It meant this, and both the parties understood it well, that the war of aggression which the Disbelievers had been waging for several years, had come to an end. The Holy Prophet himself declared: "After this year, the Quraish will not be able to attack you; now you will take the offensive."

When the disbelievers realized that they could not defeat Islam on the battlefield, they chose the moral front to carry on the conflict. It cannot be said with certainty whether this Change of tactics was the outcome of deliberate consultations, or it was the inevitable result of the humiliating retreat in the Battle of the Trench, for which all the available forces of the enemy had been concentrated:They knew it well that the rise of Islam was nor due to the numerical strength of the Muslims nor to their superior arms and ammunition nor to their greater material resources; nay, the Muslims were fighting against fearful odds on all these fronts. They owed their success to their moral superiority. Their enemies realized that the pure and noble qualities of the Holy Prophet and his followers were capturing the hearts of the people, and were also binding them together into a highly disciplined community. As a result of this, they were defeating the mushriks and the Jews both on the peace and on the war front, be cause the latter lacked discipline and character.

Under the above mentioned circumstances, the wicked designs of the disbelievers led them to start a campaign of vilification against the Holy Prophet and the Muslims in order to destroy the bulwark of morale that was helping them to defeat their enemies. Therefore the strategy was to attain the assistance of the hypocrites to spread slanders against the Holy Prophet and his followers so that the mushriks and the Jews could exploit these to sow the seeds of discord among the Muslims and undermine their discipline.

The first opportunity for the use of the new strategy was afforded in Zil-Qa'dah 5 A. H. when the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Zainab (daughter of Jahsh), who was the divorced wife of his adopted son, Zaid bin Harithah. The Holy Prophet had arranged this marriage in order to put an end to the custom of ignorance, which gave the same status to the adopted son that was the right only of the son from one's own loins. The hypocrites, however, considered it a golden opportunity to vilify the Holy Prophet from inside the community, and the Jews and the mushriks exploited it from outside to ruin his high reputation by this malicious slander. For this purpose fantastic stories were concocted and spread to this effect: "One day Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) happened to see the wife of his adopted son and fell in love with her; he maneuvered her divorce and married her." Though this was an absurd fiction it was spread with such skill, cunning and artfulness that it succeeded in its purpose; so much so that some Muslim tradtionalist and commentators also have cited some parts of it in their writings, and the orientalists have exploited these fully to vilify the Holy Prophet. As a matter of fact, Hadrat Zainab was never a stranger to the Holy Prophet that he should see her by chance and fall in love with her at first sight. For she was his first cousin, being the daughter of his real paternal aunt, Umaimah, daughter of Abdul Muttalib. He had known her from her childhood to her youth. A year before this incident, he himself had persuaded her against her will to marry Hadarat Zaid in order to demonstrate practically that the Quraish and the liberated slaves were equal as human being. As she never reconciled herself to her marriage with a liberated slave, they could not pull on together for long, which inevitably led to her divorce. The above mentioned facts were well known to all, yet the slanderers succeeded in their false propaganda with the result that even today there are people who exploit these things to defame Islam.

The second slander was made on the honor of Hadrat Ayesha, a wife of the Holy Prophet, in connection with an incident which occurred while he was returning from the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq. As this attack was even severer than the first one and was the main background of this Surah, we shall deal with it in greater detail.

Let us say a few words about Abdullah bin Ubayy, who played the part of a villain in this attack. He belonged to the clan of Khazraj and was one of the most important chiefs of Al-Madinah. The people had even intended to make him their king a little before the Holy Prophet's migration there, but the scheme had to be dropped because of the changed circumstances. Though he had embraced Islam, he remained at heart a hypocrite and his hypocrisy was so manifest that he was called the "Chief of the Hypocrites". He never lost any opportunity to slander Islam in order to take his revenge.

Now the main theme. When in Sha'ban 6 A. H. the Holy Prophet learned that the people of Bani al-Mustaliq were making preparations for a war against the Muslims and were trying to muster other clans also for this purpose, he fore- stalled and took the enemy by surprise. After capturing the people of the clan and their belongings, the Holy Prophet made a halt near Muraisi, a spring in their territory. One day a dispute concerning taking water from the spring started between a servant of Hadrat Umar and an ally of the clan of Khazraj, and developed into a quarrel between the Muhajirs(immigrants) and the Ansar(Muslims of Madinah), but was soon settled. This, however, did not suit the strategy of Abdullah bin Ubayy, who also had joined the expedition with a large number of hypocrites. So he began to incite the Ansar, saying, "You yourselves brought these people of the quraish from Makkah and made them partners in your wealth and property. And now they have become your rivals and want domination over you. If even now you withdraw your support from them, they shall be forced to leave your city." Then he swore and declared, "As soon as we reach back Al-Madinah, the respectable people will turn out the degraded people from the city."

When the Holy Prophet came to know of this, he ordered the people to set off immediately and march back to Al-Madinah. The forced march continued up to noon the next day without a halt on the way so that the people became exhausted and had no time for idle talk.

Though this wise judgment and quick action by the Holy Prophet averted the undesirable consequences of the mischief, Abdullah bin Ubayy got another opportunity for doing a far more serious and greater mischief, i. e. by engineering a "Slander" against Hadrat Ayesha, for that was a mischief which might well have involved the young Muslim Community in a civil war, if the Holy Prophet and his sincere and devoted followers had not shown wisdom, forbearance and marvelous discipline in dealing with it. In order to understand the events that led to the incident of the "Slander", we cite the story in Hadrat 'Ayesha's own words. She says :

"Whenever the Holy Prophet went out on a journey, he decided by lots as to which of his wives should accompany him. Accordingly, it was decided that I should accompany him during the expedition to Bani al Mustaliq. On the return journey, the Holy Prophet halted for the night at a place which was the last stage on the way back to Al- Madinah. It was still night, when they began to make preparations for the march. So I went outside the camp to ease myself. When I returned and came near my halting place, I noticed that my necklace had fallen down somewhere. I went back in search for it but in the meantime the caravan moved off and I was left behind all alone. The four carriers of the litter had placed it on my camel without noticing that it was empty. This happened because of my light weight due to lack of food in those days. I wrapped myself in my sheet and lay down in the hope that when it would be found that I had been left behind, a search party would come back to pick me up. In the meantime I fell asleep. In the morning, when Safwan bin Mu'attal Sulami passed that way, he saw me and recognized me for he had seen me several times before the Commandment about purdah had been sent down. No sooner did he see me than he stopped his camel and cried out spontaneously : "How sad! The wife of the Holy Prophet has been left here!" At this I woke up all of a sudden and covered my face with my sheet. Without uttering another word, he made his camel kneel by me and stood aside, while I climbed on to the camel back. He led the camel by the nose-string and we overtook the caravan at about noon, when it had just halted and nobody had yet noticed that I had been left behind. I learnt afterwards that this incident had been used to slander me and Abdullah bin Ubayy was foremost among the slanderers.(According to other traditions, when Hadrat Ayesha reached the camp on the camel, led by Safwan, and it was known that she had been left behind, Abdullah bin Ubayy cried out, 'By God, she could not have remained chaste. Look, there comes the wife of your Prophet openly on the camel led by the person with whom she passed the night.')

"When I reached Al-Madinah, I fell ill and stayed in bed for more than a month. Though I was quite unaware of it, the news of the "Slander" was spreading like a scandal in the city, and had also reached the Holy Prophet. Anyhow, I noticed that he did not seem as concerned about my illness he used to be. He would come but without addressing me directly, would inquire from others how I was and leave the house. Therefore it troubled my mind that something had gone wrong somewhere. So I took leave of him and went to my mother's house for better nursing.

"While I was there, one night I went out of the city to ease myself in the company of Mistah's mother, who was a first cousin of my mother. As she was walking along she stumbled over something and cried out spontaneously, 'May Mistah perish!' To this I retorted, 'What a good mother you are that you curse your own son -- the son who took part in the Battle of Badr.' She replied, 'My dear daughter, are you not aware of his scandal mongering?' Then she told me everything about the campalgn of the "Slander".(Besides the hypocrites, some true Muslims also had been involved in this campaign, and among them who took leading part in it, were Mistah, Hassan bin Thabit, the famous poet of Islam, and Hamnah, daughter of Jahsh and sister of Hadrat Zainab). Hearing this horrible story, my blood curdled, and I immediately returned home, and passed the rest of the night in crying over it.

"During my absence the Holy Prophet took counsel with Ali and Usamah bin Zaid about this matter. Usamah said good words about me to this effect:'O Messenger of Allah, we have found nothing but good in your wife. All that is being spread about her is a lie and calumny.' As regards Ali, he said, 'O Messenger of Allah, there is no dearth of women; you may, if you like, marry an other wife. If, how- ever, you would like to investigate into the matter, you may send for her maid servant and enquire into it through her.' Accordingly, the maid servant was sent for and questioned. She replied, 'I declare on an oath by Allah, Who has sent you with the Truth, that I have never seen any evil thing in her, except that she falls asleep when I tell her to look after the kneaded dough in my absence and a goat comes and eats it.'

"On that same day the Holy Prophet addressed the people from the pulpit, saying:'O Muslims, who from among you will defend my honor against the attacker of the person who has transgressed all bounds in doing harm to me by slandering my wife. By God, I have made a thorough enquiry and found nothing wrong with her nor with the man, whose name has been linked with the "Slander". At this Usaid bin Hudair (or Sa'd bin Mauz) according to other traditions) stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, if that person belongs to our clan, we will kill him by ourselves, but if he belongs to the Khazraj clan, we will kill him if you order us to do so.' Hearing this Sa'd bin 'Ubadah,2 chief of the Khazraj clan, stood up and said, 'You lie you can never kill him. You are saying this just because the person belongs to our clan of Khazraj. Had he belonged to your clan, you would never have said so.' Hadrat Usaid retorted, 'You are a hypocrite: that is why you are defending a hypocrite.' At this, there was a general turmoil in the mosque, which would have developed into a riot, even though the Holy Prophet was present there the whole time. But he cooled down their anger and came down from the pulpit."

The remaining details of the incident will be cited along with our commentary on the Text, which honorably absolved Hadrat Aishah from the blame. But here we would only want to point out the enormity of the mischief that was engineered by Abdullah bin Ubayy: (1) It implied an attack on the honour of the Holy Prophet and Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq.(2) He meant to undermine the high moral superiority which was the greatest asset of the Islamic Movement (3) He intended to ignite civil war between the Muhajirs and the Ansar, and between Aus and Khazraj, the two clans of the Ansar.

Theme and Topics
This Surah and vv. 28-73 of Surah Al-Ahzab(of which this is the sequel) were sent down to strengthen the moral front, which at that time was the main target of the attack, vv. 28-73 of Al-Ahzab were sent down concerning the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab, and on the occasion of the second attack (the "Slander" about Hadrat Aishah), Surah An-Nur was sent down to repair the cracks that had appeared in the unity of the Muslim Community. If we keep this in view during the study of the two Surahs, we shall understand the wisdom that underlies the Commandments about purdah. Allah sent the following instructions to strengthen and safeguard the moral front, and to counteract the storm of propaganda that was raised on the occasion of the marriage of Hazrat Zainab:


The wives of the Holy Prophet were enjoined to remain within their private quarters, to avoid display of adornments and to be cautious in their talk with other persons (vv. 32, 33).


The other Muslims were forbidden to enter the private rooms of the Holy Prophet and instructed to ask whatever they wanted from behind the curtain.(v. 53).


A line of demarcation was drawn between the mahram and the non-mahram relatives. Only the former were allowed to enter the private rooms of those wives of the Holy Prophet with whom they were so closely related as to prohibit marriage with them.(v. 55).


The Muslims were told that the wives of the Prophet were prohibited for them just like their own real mothers; therefore every Muslim should regard them with the purest of intentions.(vv. 53, 54).


The Muslims were warned that they would invite the curse and scourge of Allah if they offended the Holy Prophet. Likewise it was a heinous sin to attack the honor of or slander any Muslim man or woman.(vv. 57, 58).


All the Muslim women were enjoined to cover their faces with their sheets if and when they had to go out of their houses.(v. 59).

On the occasion of the second attack, this Surah was sent down to keep pure and strengthen the moral fiber of the Muslim society, which had been shaken by the enormity of the slander. We give below a summary of the Commandments and instructions in their chronological order so that one may understand how the Qur'an makes use of the psychological occasion to reform the Community by the adoption of legal, moral and social measures.


Fornication which had already been declared to be a social crime (IV: 15,16) was now made a criminal offense and was to be punished with a hundred lashes.


It was enjoined to boycott the adulterous men and women and the Muslims were forbidden to have any marriage relations with them.


The one, who accused the other of adultery but failed to produce four witnesses, was to be punished with eighty lashes.


The Law of Li'an was prescribed to decide the charge of adultery against his own fife by a husband.


The Muslims were enjoined to learn a lesson from the incident of the "Slander" about Hadrat Aishah, as if to say, "You should be very cautious in regard to charges of adultery against the people of good reputation, and should not spread these; nay, you should refute and suppress them immediately." In this connection, a general principle was enunciated that the proper spouse for a pure man is a pure woman, for he cannot pull on with a wicked woman for long, and the same is the case with a pure woman, as if to say, "When you knew that the Holy Prophet was a pure man, nay, the purest of all human beings, how could you believe that he had experienced happiness with a wicked woman and exalted her as the most beloved of his wives? For it was obvious that an adulterous woman could not have been able to deceive, with her affected behavior, a pure man like the Holy Prophet. You ought also to have considered the fact that the accuser was a mean person while the accused was a pure woman. This should have been enough to convince you that the accusation was not worth your consideration; nay, it was not even conceivable.


Those who spread news and evil rumours and propagate wickedness in the Muslim Community, deserve punishment and not encouragement.


A general principle was laid down that relations in the Muslim Community should be based on good faith and not on suspicion: everyone should be treated as innocent unless he is proved to be guilty and vice versa.


The people were forbidden to enter the houses of others unceremoniously and were instructed to take permission for this.


Both men and women were instructed to lower their gaze and forbidden to cast glances or make eyes at each other.


Women were enjoined to cover their heads and breasts even inside their houses.


Women were forbidden to appear with make-up before other men except their servants or such relatives with whom their marriage is prohibited.


They were enjoined to hide their make-ups when they went out of their houses, and even forbidden to put on jingling ornaments, while they moved out of their houses.


Marriage was encouraged and enjoined even for slaves and slave girls, for unmarried people help spread indecency.


The institution of slavery was discouraged and the owners and other people were enjoined to give financial help to the slaves to earn their freedom under the law of Mukatabat.


Prostitution by slave girls was forbidden in the first instance, for prostitution in Arabia was confined to this class alone. This in fact implied the legal prohibition of prostitution.


Sanctity of privacy in home life was enjoined even for servants and under age children including one's own. They were enjoined not to enter the private rooms of any man or woman without permission; especially in the morning, at noon and at night.


Old women were given the concession that they could set aside their head covers within their houses but should refrain from display of adornments. Even they were told that it was better for them to keep themselves covered with head wrappers.


The blind, lame, crippled and sick persons were allowed to take any article of food from the houses of other people without permission, for it was not to be treated like theft and cheating, which are cognizable offenses.


On the other hand, the Muslims were encouraged to develop mutual relationships by taking their meals together, and the nearest relatives and intimate friends were allowed to take their meals in each other's house without any formal invitation. This was to produce mutual affection and sincere relationships between them to counteract any future mischief. Side by side with these instructions, clear signs of the Believers and the hypocrites were stated to enable every Muslim to discriminate between the two. At the same time the Community was bound together by adopting disciplinary measures in order to make it stronger and firmer than it was at the time so as to discourage the enemies from creating mischief in it.

Above all, the most conspicuous thing about this discourse is that it is free from the bitterness which inevitably follows such shameful and absurd attacks. Instead of showing any wrath at this provocation, the discourse prescribes some laws and regulations and enjoins reformative commandments and issues wise instructions that were required at the time for the education and training of the Community. Incidentally, this teaches us how to deal with such provocative mischiefs coolly, wisely and generously. At the same time, it is a clear proof that this is not the word of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) but of a Being Who is observing all human conditions and affairs from the highest level, and guiding mankind without any personal prejudices, feelings and leanings. Had this been the word of the Holy Prophet; there would have been at least some tinge of natural bitterness in spite of his great generosity and forbearance, for it is but human that a noble man naturally become enraged when his own honor is attacked in this mean manner.

Translator
Irfan ul Quran

Sheikh ul Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri

A Brief Introduction

Great intellectual, reformer, hadith-scholar, interpreter of the Holy Qur’an, author and organizational leader of contemporary times, Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, was born in Jhang city of Pakistan on February 19, 1951. He got his early education in Jhang and passed all examinations from matriculation to Masters with great distinctions. He did his LLB from the University of the Punjab in 1974 and in 1986 got his PhD on the topic of “Punishments in Islam, their Classification and Philosophy” from the same University.
His revered father Farid-e-Millat Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri was a top-notch scholar, reformer, expert doctor of medicine, eloquent poet, practicing mystic, lover of the Holy Prophet (saw) and multi-dimensional intellectual. He went through the phases of medical and religious education under the close supervision of prominent people in higher institutions of Delhi, Hyderabad Deccan, Lucknow, Sialkoat and Jhang. For acquisition of spiritual blessings and complete expertise in Islamic sciences, he undertook journey to visit great Islamic institutions of Arab countries including Syria and Iraq in particular and two sacred places of Islam namely Makkah and Madina. He happened to study under great scholarly personalities of Islamic world like Shaykh ‘Alawi bin ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki and Shaykh Muhammad al-Kittani during his stay there. He took his spiritual allegiance at the hands of Sayyidina Shaykh Ibrahim Saif-ud-Din Gilani of Baghdad. Due to his high literary and poetic taste, he had a number of meetings with the Poet of the East Allama Muhammad Iqbal during his youth. His internal spiritual yearning also led him to see Sayyid Pir Maher Ali Shah.
The prominent and most revered personalities of the time whose company Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri enjoyed included Sayyid Ahmad Sa‘eed Kazmi, Shaykh-ul-Islam Khawaja Muhammad Qamar-ud-Din Sialwi, Qibla Babu Ji, Shaykh-ul-Hadith Sardar Ahmad Qadri, Shaykh Qutb-ud-Din, Shaykh Abdul Ghafoor Hazarwi, Sahibzada Faiz-ul-Hasan Aalu Mahar Sharif, Shaykh Muhammad Umar Ichhrawi, Shaykh ‘Abd-ur-Rashid Rizwi, Shaykh ‘Abd-us-Sattar Khan Niazi and other prominent personalities of the Arab and non-Arab countries.
Shaykh-ul-Islam is the fruit of his father's prayers that he made at the Maqam Multazam in the holy Kaba before his birth. He said, “O Master of the worlds! Grant me a son who possesses Your gnosis and has deep knowledge of Your Religion; is a champion of a great Islamic, scholarly, intellectual, moral and political revolution and who benefits an age with his scholarship!” So when Allah Almighty granted this prayer, he was not only given the glad tidings of the birth of a son but the son was also named ‘Tahir’. True lover of the Holy Prophet (saw), Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri added Muhammad with Tahir due to the Prophetic reference and devoted his God-given scholarly, religious and spiritual capabilities for the education and training of Tahir. That is why his father took him to the holy city of Madina in his childhood in 1963 and got a great scholarly personality of the Islamic world, Shaykh Zia-ud-Din Madani, to inaugurate his religious studies in the Prophet's Mosque. On his arrival back to the country, Muhammad Tahir was formally admitted to Jamia Qutbiyya Rizwiyya (Jhang). He kept getting education of Dars Nizami from Shaykh ‘Abd-ur-Rashid Rizwi and his father till 1969 simultaneously with general education like Matriculation and FSc. In 1970, he completed Dawra Hadith from his father. In 1979 he was authorized to transmit Hadith by Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Saeed Kazimi. Likewise Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki also specially authorized him to narrate Hadith.
The names of a few prominent personalities who taught Shaykh-ul-Islam are given here below:
  1. Qudwat-ul-Awliya Sayyidina Tahir ‘Ala-ud-Din al-Qadri al-Gilani
  2. Shaykh Zia-ud-Din Ahmad Qadri al-Madani
  3. Farid-e-Millat Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri
  4. Shaykh Abu al-Barkaat Sayyid Ahmad Qadri
  5. Mohaddith Azam Shaykh Muhammad Sardar Ahmad Qadri
  6. Ghazali Zaman Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
  7. Shaykh Ghulam Rasul Rizwi
  8. Dr Bhurhan Ahmad Farooqi
  9. Shaykh ‘Abd-ul-Ma‘bud al-Madani
  10. Shazkh ‘Ab-ur-Rashid Rizwi
  11. Prof Dr Bashir Ahmad Saddique
  12. Mohaddith Harem Sayyid ‘Alawi bin ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki
  13. Mohaddith Harem Sayed Muhammad bin ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki
  14. Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad al-Fatih al-Kittani
  15. Shaykh Husayn bin Ahmad ‘Usayran (a student of Imam Yusuf bin Isma‘il Nabhani)
Not only did Shaykh-ul-Islam study the Holy Qur’an and Hadith deeply from the revolutionary angle during his religious learning but also went through dozens of books of a number of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. When he entered practical life at the age of 21, the first practical demonstration of his understanding of the Holy Qur’an and creative consciousness was his maiden book “Selections from the Holy Qur’an” (This book, with addition of lectures of Shaykh-ul-Islam, has now been published in two huge volumes under the title of Qur’anic Philosophy of Revolution). After achieving mental, intellectual and scholarly maturity, he took spiritual allegiance at the hands of Qudwat-ul-Awliya Sayyidina Tahir ‘Ala-ud-Din al-Qadri al-Gilani in 1972 who was a complete reflection of Great Helper Shaykh ‘Abd-ul-Qadir Jilani in physique and character.
He passed the competitive examination of Punjab Public Service Commission in 1974 and started his practical life as a lecturer in Islamic studies. He also practised as an attorney at law from 1976 to 1978 in the District Courts Jhang. Later on when he considered his shifting to Lahore necessary in view of organizational requirements, he remained associated with the Law College (University of the Punjab) as a lecturer of Islamic Law from 1978 to 1983. With the widening network of the mission, he resigned from the teaching profession to pay his undivided attention to it. However, on the insistence of the University, he agreed to serve as visiting Professor for LLM at the University Law College from 1983 to 1988. In addition to that, he also rendered his services in various capacities such as Member Punjab University Senate, Syndicate and Academic Council, advisor to Federal Shariah Court of Pakistan, Supreme Court of Pakistan and as an expert in the National Committee for Syllabus.

Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri had set the revival and spread of Islam as the purpose of his life from the very beginning. That is why he spent every moment of his life purposefully and constructively. The platform of youth by the name of ‘Mahaz-e-Hurriyat’ that he set up at the age of 24 in order to realize his dream of renaissance of Islam became the seat of learning and training of the Muslims of the entire world in the form of Minhaj-ul-Quran International. He also played effective and full role in the ‘Nizam Mustafa Movement’ in 1978. He also authored his first book on the topic of Nizam Mustafa: a Revolutionizing Message. In 1980, he launched his fortnightly lectures on Qur’an at the Shadman Colony Lahore. He formally founded Minhaj-ul-Quran International on October 17, 1980 and it was from its platform that he organized his organizational activities gradually. His lectures on the Holy Qur’an were also started at Islamabad and Karachi after Lahore under the banner of Minhaj-ul-Quran International. In 1983, he started his weekly lectures on Pakistan Television by the name of “Fahm-ul-Qur’an”. This program was the most successful and interesting program through which his introduction spread to every nook and corner of the country. Later on, his lectures and speeches started taking place in the foreign countries. He delivered hundreds of speeches on different topics abroad especially in the European countries. He also kept giving thoughtful lectures from time to time on diverse contemporary and intellectual topics in a number of universities of the European countries including America, Canada and Great Britain. These lectures are also telecast on different TV channels in the world today. They have also been printed in form of book.

Owing to his expertise on the modern and contemporary sciences, he undertook a comprehensive translation of the Holy Qur’an by the name of Irfan-ul-Qur’an, which encompasses scholarly, literary, intellectual and scientific aspects and is more easily understandable than the various Qur’anic translations done so far. It is also a beautiful manifestation of respect for Allah and His Prophet (saw). His historic, constructive work on interpretation of the Holy Qur’an and Hadith is yet another feather in his cap. He has embarked on the task of redesigning the entire collection of Hadith in accordance with new and contemporary demands and this series based on 20 huge volumes will be a valuable treasure for the new generations. His books al-Minhaj-us-Sawi and Jami‘-us-Sunnah on science of Hadith are links in the same chain. Besides this, he established the high status of Imam Abu Hanifa in the principles of Hadith with scholarly arguments and wrote down a book in three volumes. He is also the author of the voluminous book entitled Sirat-ur-Rasul (saw) written on the life of the Prophet in Urdu language. In addition to that, his more than three hundred books on politics, sociology, spiritualism and science are matchless intellectual accomplishment.

Along with the above-mentioned efforts, Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri enjoys the rare honour of organizing the largest private network in the field of education in Pakistan. One chartered university, a number of colleges and 572 schools have been established under this educational plan. He is also the chairman of the Board of Governors of Minhaj University (chartered by the Govt. of the Punjab). In these institutions, the youth are being imparted moral and intellectual education of high standard through a blend of modern and ancient sciences on comparatively cheaper rates.

He established Pakistan Awami Tehreek (Pakistan Peoples’ Movement) for the promotion of healthy political and democratic culture in the country, establishment of world peace and projection of principle-based political traditions. He has also been the Chairman of Pakistan Awami Ittihad, a grand opposition alliance of 19 national political and religious parties (including Pakistan Peoples’ Party) in 1997. He also got elected to the National Assembly on the same platform of PAT in the elections 2002. But he resigned from his seat as a protest against the unconstitutional and undemocratic steps of Pakistani leadership in October 2004. He has also served as Secretary-General of Aalami Ittehad al-Islami and vice-president of a representative organization of the Islamic world al-Mu‘tamar al-Aalami al-Islami. He also made extensive efforts for achieving harmony and reconciliation among the opposing sects and took practical steps for replacing their rivalries into mutual friendship. He always raised his voice for the rights of the minorities for improving mutual relations among the communities based on tolerance, inter-faith harmony and co-existence. He gathered all the minorities of Pakistan on the platform of Pakistan Awami Tehreek in this regard. He also set up Muslim-Christian Dialogue Forum as an expression of solidarity with the Christian community in particular.

He has also founded an international non-governmental organization by the name of Minhaj Welfare Foundation for the welfare of the poor and downtrodden sections of society. Welfare activities are organized under MWF not only for Pakistan but also for foreign countries. Minhaj Welfare Foundation has spent millions of rupees on the rehabilitation of the displaced people hit by natural disasters like earthquake and Tsunami etc.

He has also established following forums under Minhaj-ul-Quran International in order to unite people at its platform. Their names are given here below:
  1. Minhaj-ul-Quran Ulama Council
  2. Minhaj-ul-Quran Women League
  3. Minhaj-ul-Quran Youth League
  4. Mustafvi Students Movement
  5. Pakistan Awami Tehreek
  6. Pakistani Lawyers Movement
  7. Minhaj Welfare Foundation
  8. Muslim-Christian Dialogue Forum
  9. Council of Muslim Engineers and Technologists
Minhaj-ul-Quran International, which is the champion of revival of Islam, unity of Umma and awakening, has its network in more than 80 countries and seven continents of the world.


The books of Shaykh-ul-Islam are also passing through various phases of translation into other regional and international languages in addition to Urdu, English and Arabic. He is the pioneering personality who has put the modern means of communication into use. The audio and video recording of his speeches has continued since the beginning. This was the time when a good number of religious scholars declared the video forbidden. His more than five thousand lectures and speeches on hundreds of topics are available on CDs, DVDs, and VCDs, which are the best means of propagation of message of Islam throughout the world. He is the only personality in the modern history whose treasure of speeches is available.

The multi-dimensional social efforts for human welfare and matchless achievements of Shaykh-ul-Islam especially in the field of research and writing have been acknowledged at the global level. He is, no doubt, international ambassador of peace, revivalist of Islam and wisdom of contemporary times. He is not merely an individual, rather a beacon of light and harbinger of the bright future of Muslim Umma.









for more info please visit www.Tahir-ul-Qadri.com


 Biography of 

 

Dr. Shaykh Sayyed Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Husayni Al-Ninowy



Birth and Family lineage:
He is Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Yahya son of As-Sayyed Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Sa’id son of As-Sayyed Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Ali (the first to be called Al-Ninowy upon migration to northern Syria around the 1800’s), who’s family descends from the southern Iraqi village of Ninowa, the place where Al-Imam Al-Husayn was martyred, a partial area of which is also known as Karbala. Shaykh Muhammad’s 33rd grandfather is The known blind pious scholar, the flag bearer of the Sunnah of his time, Al-imam Ibrahim Al-Mujab, (the first one of the family of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam, to migrate to Ninowa and established an Islamic University system). The family then migrated from the village of Ninowa to the province of Ninowa, which lies in Northern Iraq, with a known mountainous region, that is famous for Olives and Olive Oil trades, which Shaykh Muhammad’s Family took part in. A venture which eventually led a part of the family to migrate to around Halab in Northern Syria. Al-Imam Ibrahim Al Mujab is the son of Al-Imam Muhammad Al-Aabed, son of Al Imam Musa Al Kathem, son of Al Imam Ja’far As-Saadeq, son of Al Imam Muhammad Al- Baqer, son of Al-Imam Zaynul’Abideen Ali,son of the Martyred Imam sayyidina Al-Husayn As-sibt, son of Maulana Al-Imam Ameer Al- Mu’mineen Ali bin Abi Taleb and the Lady Fatima Azzahra, daughter of the Best of the creation Sayyidina Muhammad bin Abdillah bin Abdil-Muttaleb bin Hashem from the tribe of Quraysh, sallallahu alayhi wa ala aalihi wa sallam.
 
When his 4th grandfather As-Sayyed Muhammad bin Ali immigrated for business and traded in olives and olive oil from Northern Iraq to Northern Syria, he settled in the north east parts of Aleppo (Halab) where he had his first born son As- Sayyed Sa’id who married a local woman and had a son; Sidi Muhammad bin Sa’id and a female named Amatullah. Sidi Muhammad married an honorable Lady named Fatima, and they had two sons : As-Sayyed Sa’id and As-Sayyed Yahya and 6 daughters. As-Sayyed Yahya (may Allah shower him with his Mercy and blessings and raise his rank in paradise) had two sons: Muhammad and Isa, may Allah protect them.

Shaykh Muhammad was born in Aleppo (Halab) the northern capital of Syria in 1386 AH in a family who maintained its religious and honorable Qur’an and Sunnah traditions.

Education:
Shaykh Muhammad began his study under his father, Sayyed Yahya, rahmatullahi alaih, memorising the Glorious Qur'an and acquiring knowledge in many of the Islamic disciplines, including Aqeedah, Fiqh, Hadith and Ihsaan, with ijaazas (license to teach). He particularly specialises in the fields of Hadeeth and Tawheed.

He attended Al- Azhar Sharif University, Faculty of Usool-uddeen, where he studied under many scholars. In addition, he was under the tutelage of many stars of this century who resided in Syria, Madina, Makkah, Tangiers, Fez, Rabat, Egypt, Sudan and Bilad Ashaam. He sat at the feet of, and was authorized by, many scholars such as Al-Imam Al- Hafeth As-Sayyed Abdullah bin Assidiqq Ghumari, Hafeth Abul Aziz bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, Hafeth Ibrahim bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, and Hafeth Hasan bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, radiaAllah anhum, Shaykh Hasan Qaribullah of Sudan, Shaykh Abdullah Al-Husayni, Shaykh Muhammad Al-Bata'ihi, Shaykh Jamil Ar-Rifaiy, Sayyed Al- Habib Al-Attas of Hadramout and others. Among the Mashayekh he learnt from are Shaykh Abdullah Siraj-Addin Al-Husayny, the Ba'Alawi scholars in Hijaz, Shaykh Abdullah At-Talidi, the Kittani Shuyukh, Shaykh Qaribullah of Sudan, the late Muhaddith Al-Haramayn Sayyed Muhammad Alawi Al-Maliki and many other honorable scholars.

Some of the books Shaykh Muhammad studied under his Shuyukh partially or wholly, and received Ijaza’s of Teaching in them with continued chain of narration, are as follows: Al-Qur’an Al-karim, Tafeer Al-Imam Al-Fakher Arrazy, Tafseer Al-Imam Al-Qurtubi, Tafseer Al-Imam At-Tabari, An- Nahrul Al Madd by Imam Abu Hayyan.

Took many books in Hadeeth and the Terminology of Hadeeth such as Nukhbatul Al-Fikr with the explanation by Hafedh Ibn Hajar, Al- bayquniyyah, Irshad Tullab Al-Haqaaeq by Imam Nawawi, Tadrib Arrawi by Imam Suyuti, Sahih Muslim with the explanation of Imam Nawawi, and Sahih Bukhari with the explanation of Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani.among others.

  • In the Shafi’iyy Fiqh he took Al-Muqadimmah Al-Hadramiyyah with the explanation of Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, Matn Abi Shuja’, Matn Azabad, Tanweer Al-Qulub, and part of Al-Majmu’ by Imam Nawawi, etc. 
  • In the Hanafi Fiqh took Matn Al-Quduri, Al- Ikhtiar by Musili, Al- Hidayah by Al Mirgani, etc. and in Maliki Fiqh took Ibn Asher by Mayyarah, and Matn Al-Ashmawiyyah., 1st volume of Athakhira by Al- Qurafi, Qawa’ed Al- Ahkaam by Al-Izz bin Abdussalam, Al-I’tisaam by Ash-Shatibi, and Bulugh Al-Maram by Ibn Hajar.
  • In Aqeedah, took At-Tahawiyyieh, An-Nasafieh, As-Sanoosieh, Aqeedat Al Imam Ibn Asaaker, Al-Fiqh Al- Akbar by Al-Imam Al-Atham Abu Hanifa, rahimahuAllah with explanation of Mullah Ali Al-Qari, Usul-Addin by Al-Imam Abdul Qaher Al Bagdadi, Daf’u shubahi At-Tashbeeh by Ibn Al-Jawzi, Daf’u Shubahi man Shabbaha wa tamarrada by Imam Al-Husany, Al-Asma wassifat by imam Bayhaqi, Sharhu Al-Jawhara by Imam Allaqaani, Al-Insaaf by Imam Al-Baqillani, Asasu At-Taqdees by Al-Imam Arrazy, Ida’atu Addujna by Al-Imam Al-Maqarri, Furqanu Al-Qur’an by Al-Quda’iy, Bahru Al- Kalam by Al-Imam An-Nasafiy, At-Talweeh by Al-Imam At-Taftazani, etc..
  • In Tasawuff, Ihya ulum Addin, Arrisala Al-Qushayrrieh, Ithaaf Assada Al Muttaqin by As-Sayyed Azubaydi, Al-Burhan Al- Mu’ayyad by Al-Imam Arrifa’iy, Halatu Ahli Al- Haqiqa by Imam Ar-Rifa’iy, Azzuhdu Al-Kabeer by Al-Imam Al-Bayhaqi, Tabaqatu Asufiyyiah by Al-Imam As-Salami, Arisala by Al-Hareth Al-Muhasibi, Al-Hikam of Ibn Ata’Allah, and At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra by al-Imam Asha’rani. And some more.
Current News:
  • Shaykh Muhammad has been trying to provide the first interactive Islamic University over the internet, while utilizing technology, yet preserving the Sunnah tradition of TALAQQI (mouth to mouth transmission of knowledge) through interactive video and audio, and conferencing, leading to generating knowledgeable male and female Muslims to lead the Ummah through genuine teachings and adherence to the Saheeh of the Sunnah of Rasoolillah, sallallahiu alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam.
  • Shaykh Muhammad is launching the first of its kind: The American Islamic University, an academic Islamic teaching system, based on Talaqqi and Ijaza in teaching and knowledge. www.americanislamicuniversity.com and www.americanislamicinstitute.org
  • Shaykh Muhammad is the senior scholar-in-residence at Masjid Al-Madina in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. since 2001, where he delivers the Friday Sermons and gives weekly Majlis in Hadith and Tawheed.  
  • He participates in many national and international conferences on Islam, world peace, and welfare of humanity.
Objectives and Goals:
  • To revive and renew the call to go “Back to Basics” (which are the Qur’an and Authentic Sunnah), by increasing the awareness among Muslims and non Muslims about Islam and the authentic Tawheed (monotheism), and prioritizing those two sources as a standard. 
  • To preach Tolerance, Peace, Mercy and Understanding within the Muslim community and with non Muslims, through education.
  • To manifest the line of moderation and truth commanded by the Qur’an and Sunnah.
Works and Present projects:
He has authored many books in the sciences of Tawheed and Hadith in Arabic, some of which have now been introduced into the English language, among his works:
  1. Satisfying the Need with the Obligatory Creed of ‘ilm At- Tawheed: (explanation of Al_Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah in English with the proof from the Qur’an, Saheeh of the Sunnah, and the intellect).
  2. Relief in explaining the Islamic Belief : ( Explanation of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar by Imam Abu Hanifa in English, with high-yield comments and beneficial applications, preserving the explanation of Mulla Ali Al-Qari,rahimahu Allah). Still pending fine tuning.
  3. Saheefa in the Obligatory Fiqh according to the Imam Abu Hanifa: (a summary detailing what scholars deem mandatory upon every Muslim to know, ‘ ilm daroori ) Simple, and easy to learn and teach. Summarized from Al- Ikhtiar by Al-Musili, Al- Hashiyah, Matn Al- Quduri, Al-Hidayah by Al- Mirgani, and Al-Mathaheb by Azuhayli.
  4. iqdu An-Nafees in the obligatory fiqh according to the Imam Muhammad bin Idrees (Shafi’iy) : ( a summary of the obligatory portion of Fiqh according to the Imam As-Shafi’iy).
  5. Tanweer Al-Mu’mineen with the Fadaa’el of the Sahaba and the Khulafa’ Arraashideen : ( enlighting the believers with the beautiful characters of the 4 Khalifas of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam, and defending each one of them with the Qur’an and Saheeh of the Sunnah).
  6. Qawlu Al-Asmaa fi Tafseeri Asma’I Allahi Al-Husna : ( the beautiful saying in explaning the meanings of the Perfectly beautiful names of Allah).
  7. shroohu An-Ninowyyiah Ala Al- Manthooma Al-Bayqooniyyah : ( the Ninowy explanation on Matn Al-Bayqooniiah, which is a explanation of Matn Al Bayqooniyyah by Imam Bayqoony in the terminology of Hadeeth).
  8. Duraru Al-Bahiyyah fi Ansaabi Asadah An-Ninowyyiah : ( the shining pearls in the Ninowy family)   a booklet in the science of Ansaab, (ancestry), elucidating specifically on the noble origin of the Ninowy/nawnawy families and their Husayny origin.
  9. Ithafu Al-murid bi mukhtasari Ahkaami At- Tajweed : ( a summary of the rules of Tajweed and recitation of Qur’an according to the Riwayah of Hafs by way of Aasem).
  10. Al- Arba’ieen Al-Alawiyyah: ( 40 Hadeeth Saheeh narrated by way of Ameer Al-Mu’mineed Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Taleb. Similar to the 40 hadeeth Nawawiyyah, by Imam Nawawi).
  11. Many small letters and articles about specific Ahaadeeth and their classifications, some fiqh issues, and mostly in the science of Tawheed. Many projects are still under work and pending, such as Explanation of the Aqeedah An-Nasafiyyah,   A summary of Seerah based on the Qur’an and the Saheeh of the Sunnah in English and Arabic, a Tafseer in English that avoid mistakes done so far.
  12. A Doctor’s thesis about: Imam Muslim Methodology in the Science of Hadith.
  13. Tahqeeq of or Hadith commentary on the Shama’el Al Muhammadiyya of Al Imam At-Tirmthi, detailed, with a unique Tazkiya-based commentary on every Hadith.
  14. Tahqeeq of; commentary (hadithi and general) on Ash-Sharaful-Mu’abbad of Imam Yusuf Nabhani, rahimahu Allah.
And many more Makhtoot scriptures, yet to be finalized.
May Allah forgive him, his fathers and all believers.

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