القرآن الكريمSurah An-Nūr
Al Quran Nul Karim
Translation in English by
Sheikh ul Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri
The Profile by
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Profile Of The Surah
|Juz : 18||Surah No. :24||Surah:AN-NUR||No. of Verses: 64|
This Surah takes its name, An Nur, from verse 35.
Period of Revelation
The consensus of opinion is that it was sent down after the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq and this is confirmed by vv. 11-20 that deal with the incident of the "Slander", which occurred during that Campaign. But there is a difference of opinion as to whether this Campaign took place in 5 A. H. before the Battle of the Trench or in 6 A. H. after it. It is important to decide this issue in order to determine whether this Surah was sent down earlier or Surah Al- Ahzab(XXXIII), which is the only other Surah containing the Commandments about the observance of purdah by women. Surah Al-Ahzab was admittedly sent down on the occasion of the Battle of the Trench. Now if this Battle occurred earlier, it would mean that the initial instructions in connection with the Commandments of purdah were sent down in Surah Al-Ahzab? and they were complemented later by the Commandments revealed in this Surah. On the other hand, if the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq occurred earlier, the chronological order of the Commandments would be reversed, and it would become difficult to understand the legal wisdom and implications of the Commandments of purdah.
According to Ibn Sa'd, the Campaign against Bani al Mustaliq took place in Shaban 5 A. H. and the Battle of the Trench in Zil- Qa'dah the same year. This opinion is based on some traditions from Hadarat Ayesha about the events connected with the "Slander" in which she refers to a dispute between Hadrat Sa'd bin 'Ubadah and Sa'd bin Mu'az. Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az, according to authentic traditions, died during the Campaign against Bani Quraizah, which took place immediately after the Battle of the Trench. It is, therefore, evident that he could not be present in 6 A. H. to take part in a dispute about the "Slander".
On the other hand, Muhammad bin Ishaq says that the Battle of the Trench took place in Shawwal 5 A. H. and the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq in Sha'ban 6 A. H. This opinion is supported by many authentic traditions from Hadrat Ayesha and others. According to these traditions, (1) the Commandments about purdah had been sent down in Surah Al-Ahzab before the incident of the "Slander", (2) the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab in Zil-Qa'dah 5 A. H. after the Battle of the Trench, (3) Hamnah, sister of Hadrat Zainab, had taken a leading part in spreading the "Slander", just because Hadrat Ayesha was a rival of her sister. All this evidence supports the view of Muhammad bin Ishaq.
Now let us consider the two opinions a little more closely. The only argument in favor of the first opinion is the mention of the presence of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in a dispute connected with the incident of the "Slander". But this argument is weakened by some other traditions from Hadrat Ayesha, in which she mentions Hadrat Usaid bin Hudair instead of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in this dispute. It may, therefore, be assumed that there has been some confusion regarding the two names in reporting the traditions. Moreover, if we accept the first opinion, just because of the mention of the name of Hadrat Sa'd bin Mu'az in some traditions, we encounter other difficulties that cannot be resolved in any way. For, in that case, we shall have to admit that the revelation of the Commandments of purdah and the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab had taken place even earlier than the Battle of the Trench. But we learn from the Qur'an and many authentic traditions that both these events happened after that Battle and the Campaign against Bani Quraizah. That is why Ibn Hazm, Ibn Qayyim and some other eminent scholars have held the opinion of Muhammad bin Ishaq as correct, and we also hold it to be so. Thus, we conclude that Surah Al Ahzab was sent down earlier than Surah An-Nur, which was revealed in the latter half of 6 A. H. several months after Surah Al Ahzab.
Now let us review the circumstances existing at the time of the revelation of this surah. It should be kept in mind that the incident of the "Slander", which was the occasion of its revelation, was closely connected with the conflict between Islam and the disbelievers.
After the victory at Badr, the Islamic movement began to gain strength day by day; so much so that by the time of the Battle of the Trench, it had become so strong that the united forces of the enemy numbering about ten thousand failed to crush it and had to raise the siege of Al Madinah after one month. It meant this, and both the parties understood it well, that the war of aggression which the Disbelievers had been waging for several years, had come to an end. The Holy Prophet himself declared: "After this year, the Quraish will not be able to attack you; now you will take the offensive."
When the disbelievers realized that they could not defeat Islam on the battlefield, they chose the moral front to carry on the conflict. It cannot be said with certainty whether this Change of tactics was the outcome of deliberate consultations, or it was the inevitable result of the humiliating retreat in the Battle of the Trench, for which all the available forces of the enemy had been concentrated:They knew it well that the rise of Islam was nor due to the numerical strength of the Muslims nor to their superior arms and ammunition nor to their greater material resources; nay, the Muslims were fighting against fearful odds on all these fronts. They owed their success to their moral superiority. Their enemies realized that the pure and noble qualities of the Holy Prophet and his followers were capturing the hearts of the people, and were also binding them together into a highly disciplined community. As a result of this, they were defeating the mushriks and the Jews both on the peace and on the war front, be cause the latter lacked discipline and character.
Under the above mentioned circumstances, the wicked designs of the disbelievers led them to start a campaign of vilification against the Holy Prophet and the Muslims in order to destroy the bulwark of morale that was helping them to defeat their enemies. Therefore the strategy was to attain the assistance of the hypocrites to spread slanders against the Holy Prophet and his followers so that the mushriks and the Jews could exploit these to sow the seeds of discord among the Muslims and undermine their discipline.
The first opportunity for the use of the new strategy was afforded in Zil-Qa'dah 5 A. H. when the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Zainab (daughter of Jahsh), who was the divorced wife of his adopted son, Zaid bin Harithah. The Holy Prophet had arranged this marriage in order to put an end to the custom of ignorance, which gave the same status to the adopted son that was the right only of the son from one's own loins. The hypocrites, however, considered it a golden opportunity to vilify the Holy Prophet from inside the community, and the Jews and the mushriks exploited it from outside to ruin his high reputation by this malicious slander. For this purpose fantastic stories were concocted and spread to this effect: "One day Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) happened to see the wife of his adopted son and fell in love with her; he maneuvered her divorce and married her." Though this was an absurd fiction it was spread with such skill, cunning and artfulness that it succeeded in its purpose; so much so that some Muslim tradtionalist and commentators also have cited some parts of it in their writings, and the orientalists have exploited these fully to vilify the Holy Prophet. As a matter of fact, Hadrat Zainab was never a stranger to the Holy Prophet that he should see her by chance and fall in love with her at first sight. For she was his first cousin, being the daughter of his real paternal aunt, Umaimah, daughter of Abdul Muttalib. He had known her from her childhood to her youth. A year before this incident, he himself had persuaded her against her will to marry Hadarat Zaid in order to demonstrate practically that the Quraish and the liberated slaves were equal as human being. As she never reconciled herself to her marriage with a liberated slave, they could not pull on together for long, which inevitably led to her divorce. The above mentioned facts were well known to all, yet the slanderers succeeded in their false propaganda with the result that even today there are people who exploit these things to defame Islam.
The second slander was made on the honor of Hadrat Ayesha, a wife of the Holy Prophet, in connection with an incident which occurred while he was returning from the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq. As this attack was even severer than the first one and was the main background of this Surah, we shall deal with it in greater detail.
Let us say a few words about Abdullah bin Ubayy, who played the part of a villain in this attack. He belonged to the clan of Khazraj and was one of the most important chiefs of Al-Madinah. The people had even intended to make him their king a little before the Holy Prophet's migration there, but the scheme had to be dropped because of the changed circumstances. Though he had embraced Islam, he remained at heart a hypocrite and his hypocrisy was so manifest that he was called the "Chief of the Hypocrites". He never lost any opportunity to slander Islam in order to take his revenge.
Now the main theme. When in Sha'ban 6 A. H. the Holy Prophet learned that the people of Bani al-Mustaliq were making preparations for a war against the Muslims and were trying to muster other clans also for this purpose, he fore- stalled and took the enemy by surprise. After capturing the people of the clan and their belongings, the Holy Prophet made a halt near Muraisi, a spring in their territory. One day a dispute concerning taking water from the spring started between a servant of Hadrat Umar and an ally of the clan of Khazraj, and developed into a quarrel between the Muhajirs(immigrants) and the Ansar(Muslims of Madinah), but was soon settled. This, however, did not suit the strategy of Abdullah bin Ubayy, who also had joined the expedition with a large number of hypocrites. So he began to incite the Ansar, saying, "You yourselves brought these people of the quraish from Makkah and made them partners in your wealth and property. And now they have become your rivals and want domination over you. If even now you withdraw your support from them, they shall be forced to leave your city." Then he swore and declared, "As soon as we reach back Al-Madinah, the respectable people will turn out the degraded people from the city."
When the Holy Prophet came to know of this, he ordered the people to set off immediately and march back to Al-Madinah. The forced march continued up to noon the next day without a halt on the way so that the people became exhausted and had no time for idle talk.
Though this wise judgment and quick action by the Holy Prophet averted the undesirable consequences of the mischief, Abdullah bin Ubayy got another opportunity for doing a far more serious and greater mischief, i. e. by engineering a "Slander" against Hadrat Ayesha, for that was a mischief which might well have involved the young Muslim Community in a civil war, if the Holy Prophet and his sincere and devoted followers had not shown wisdom, forbearance and marvelous discipline in dealing with it. In order to understand the events that led to the incident of the "Slander", we cite the story in Hadrat 'Ayesha's own words. She says :
"Whenever the Holy Prophet went out on a journey, he decided by lots as to which of his wives should accompany him. Accordingly, it was decided that I should accompany him during the expedition to Bani al Mustaliq. On the return journey, the Holy Prophet halted for the night at a place which was the last stage on the way back to Al- Madinah. It was still night, when they began to make preparations for the march. So I went outside the camp to ease myself. When I returned and came near my halting place, I noticed that my necklace had fallen down somewhere. I went back in search for it but in the meantime the caravan moved off and I was left behind all alone. The four carriers of the litter had placed it on my camel without noticing that it was empty. This happened because of my light weight due to lack of food in those days. I wrapped myself in my sheet and lay down in the hope that when it would be found that I had been left behind, a search party would come back to pick me up. In the meantime I fell asleep. In the morning, when Safwan bin Mu'attal Sulami passed that way, he saw me and recognized me for he had seen me several times before the Commandment about purdah had been sent down. No sooner did he see me than he stopped his camel and cried out spontaneously : "How sad! The wife of the Holy Prophet has been left here!" At this I woke up all of a sudden and covered my face with my sheet. Without uttering another word, he made his camel kneel by me and stood aside, while I climbed on to the camel back. He led the camel by the nose-string and we overtook the caravan at about noon, when it had just halted and nobody had yet noticed that I had been left behind. I learnt afterwards that this incident had been used to slander me and Abdullah bin Ubayy was foremost among the slanderers.(According to other traditions, when Hadrat Ayesha reached the camp on the camel, led by Safwan, and it was known that she had been left behind, Abdullah bin Ubayy cried out, 'By God, she could not have remained chaste. Look, there comes the wife of your Prophet openly on the camel led by the person with whom she passed the night.')
"When I reached Al-Madinah, I fell ill and stayed in bed for more than a month. Though I was quite unaware of it, the news of the "Slander" was spreading like a scandal in the city, and had also reached the Holy Prophet. Anyhow, I noticed that he did not seem as concerned about my illness he used to be. He would come but without addressing me directly, would inquire from others how I was and leave the house. Therefore it troubled my mind that something had gone wrong somewhere. So I took leave of him and went to my mother's house for better nursing.
"While I was there, one night I went out of the city to ease myself in the company of Mistah's mother, who was a first cousin of my mother. As she was walking along she stumbled over something and cried out spontaneously, 'May Mistah perish!' To this I retorted, 'What a good mother you are that you curse your own son -- the son who took part in the Battle of Badr.' She replied, 'My dear daughter, are you not aware of his scandal mongering?' Then she told me everything about the campalgn of the "Slander".(Besides the hypocrites, some true Muslims also had been involved in this campaign, and among them who took leading part in it, were Mistah, Hassan bin Thabit, the famous poet of Islam, and Hamnah, daughter of Jahsh and sister of Hadrat Zainab). Hearing this horrible story, my blood curdled, and I immediately returned home, and passed the rest of the night in crying over it.
"During my absence the Holy Prophet took counsel with Ali and Usamah bin Zaid about this matter. Usamah said good words about me to this effect:'O Messenger of Allah, we have found nothing but good in your wife. All that is being spread about her is a lie and calumny.' As regards Ali, he said, 'O Messenger of Allah, there is no dearth of women; you may, if you like, marry an other wife. If, how- ever, you would like to investigate into the matter, you may send for her maid servant and enquire into it through her.' Accordingly, the maid servant was sent for and questioned. She replied, 'I declare on an oath by Allah, Who has sent you with the Truth, that I have never seen any evil thing in her, except that she falls asleep when I tell her to look after the kneaded dough in my absence and a goat comes and eats it.'
"On that same day the Holy Prophet addressed the people from the pulpit, saying:'O Muslims, who from among you will defend my honor against the attacker of the person who has transgressed all bounds in doing harm to me by slandering my wife. By God, I have made a thorough enquiry and found nothing wrong with her nor with the man, whose name has been linked with the "Slander". At this Usaid bin Hudair (or Sa'd bin Mauz) according to other traditions) stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, if that person belongs to our clan, we will kill him by ourselves, but if he belongs to the Khazraj clan, we will kill him if you order us to do so.' Hearing this Sa'd bin 'Ubadah,2 chief of the Khazraj clan, stood up and said, 'You lie you can never kill him. You are saying this just because the person belongs to our clan of Khazraj. Had he belonged to your clan, you would never have said so.' Hadrat Usaid retorted, 'You are a hypocrite: that is why you are defending a hypocrite.' At this, there was a general turmoil in the mosque, which would have developed into a riot, even though the Holy Prophet was present there the whole time. But he cooled down their anger and came down from the pulpit."
The remaining details of the incident will be cited along with our commentary on the Text, which honorably absolved Hadrat Aishah from the blame. But here we would only want to point out the enormity of the mischief that was engineered by Abdullah bin Ubayy: (1) It implied an attack on the honour of the Holy Prophet and Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq.(2) He meant to undermine the high moral superiority which was the greatest asset of the Islamic Movement (3) He intended to ignite civil war between the Muhajirs and the Ansar, and between Aus and Khazraj, the two clans of the Ansar.
Theme and Topics
This Surah and vv. 28-73 of Surah Al-Ahzab(of which this is the sequel) were sent down to strengthen the moral front, which at that time was the main target of the attack, vv. 28-73 of Al-Ahzab were sent down concerning the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab, and on the occasion of the second attack (the "Slander" about Hadrat Aishah), Surah An-Nur was sent down to repair the cracks that had appeared in the unity of the Muslim Community. If we keep this in view during the study of the two Surahs, we shall understand the wisdom that underlies the Commandments about purdah. Allah sent the following instructions to strengthen and safeguard the moral front, and to counteract the storm of propaganda that was raised on the occasion of the marriage of Hazrat Zainab:
The wives of the Holy Prophet were enjoined to remain within their private quarters, to avoid display of adornments and to be cautious in their talk with other persons (vv. 32, 33).
The other Muslims were forbidden to enter the private rooms of the Holy Prophet and instructed to ask whatever they wanted from behind the curtain.(v. 53).
A line of demarcation was drawn between the mahram and the non-mahram relatives. Only the former were allowed to enter the private rooms of those wives of the Holy Prophet with whom they were so closely related as to prohibit marriage with them.(v. 55).
The Muslims were told that the wives of the Prophet were prohibited for them just like their own real mothers; therefore every Muslim should regard them with the purest of intentions.(vv. 53, 54).
The Muslims were warned that they would invite the curse and scourge of Allah if they offended the Holy Prophet. Likewise it was a heinous sin to attack the honor of or slander any Muslim man or woman.(vv. 57, 58).
All the Muslim women were enjoined to cover their faces with their sheets if and when they had to go out of their houses.(v. 59).
On the occasion of the second attack, this Surah was sent down to keep pure and strengthen the moral fiber of the Muslim society, which had been shaken by the enormity of the slander. We give below a summary of the Commandments and instructions in their chronological order so that one may understand how the Qur'an makes use of the psychological occasion to reform the Community by the adoption of legal, moral and social measures.
Fornication which had already been declared to be a social crime (IV: 15,16) was now made a criminal offense and was to be punished with a hundred lashes.
It was enjoined to boycott the adulterous men and women and the Muslims were forbidden to have any marriage relations with them.
The one, who accused the other of adultery but failed to produce four witnesses, was to be punished with eighty lashes.
The Law of Li'an was prescribed to decide the charge of adultery against his own fife by a husband.
The Muslims were enjoined to learn a lesson from the incident of the "Slander" about Hadrat Aishah, as if to say, "You should be very cautious in regard to charges of adultery against the people of good reputation, and should not spread these; nay, you should refute and suppress them immediately." In this connection, a general principle was enunciated that the proper spouse for a pure man is a pure woman, for he cannot pull on with a wicked woman for long, and the same is the case with a pure woman, as if to say, "When you knew that the Holy Prophet was a pure man, nay, the purest of all human beings, how could you believe that he had experienced happiness with a wicked woman and exalted her as the most beloved of his wives? For it was obvious that an adulterous woman could not have been able to deceive, with her affected behavior, a pure man like the Holy Prophet. You ought also to have considered the fact that the accuser was a mean person while the accused was a pure woman. This should have been enough to convince you that the accusation was not worth your consideration; nay, it was not even conceivable.
Those who spread news and evil rumours and propagate wickedness in the Muslim Community, deserve punishment and not encouragement.
A general principle was laid down that relations in the Muslim Community should be based on good faith and not on suspicion: everyone should be treated as innocent unless he is proved to be guilty and vice versa.
The people were forbidden to enter the houses of others unceremoniously and were instructed to take permission for this.
Both men and women were instructed to lower their gaze and forbidden to cast glances or make eyes at each other.
Women were enjoined to cover their heads and breasts even inside their houses.
Women were forbidden to appear with make-up before other men except their servants or such relatives with whom their marriage is prohibited.
They were enjoined to hide their make-ups when they went out of their houses, and even forbidden to put on jingling ornaments, while they moved out of their houses.
Marriage was encouraged and enjoined even for slaves and slave girls, for unmarried people help spread indecency.
The institution of slavery was discouraged and the owners and other people were enjoined to give financial help to the slaves to earn their freedom under the law of Mukatabat.
Prostitution by slave girls was forbidden in the first instance, for prostitution in Arabia was confined to this class alone. This in fact implied the legal prohibition of prostitution.
Sanctity of privacy in home life was enjoined even for servants and under age children including one's own. They were enjoined not to enter the private rooms of any man or woman without permission; especially in the morning, at noon and at night.
Old women were given the concession that they could set aside their head covers within their houses but should refrain from display of adornments. Even they were told that it was better for them to keep themselves covered with head wrappers.
The blind, lame, crippled and sick persons were allowed to take any article of food from the houses of other people without permission, for it was not to be treated like theft and cheating, which are cognizable offenses.
On the other hand, the Muslims were encouraged to develop mutual relationships by taking their meals together, and the nearest relatives and intimate friends were allowed to take their meals in each other's house without any formal invitation. This was to produce mutual affection and sincere relationships between them to counteract any future mischief. Side by side with these instructions, clear signs of the Believers and the hypocrites were stated to enable every Muslim to discriminate between the two. At the same time the Community was bound together by adopting disciplinary measures in order to make it stronger and firmer than it was at the time so as to discourage the enemies from creating mischief in it.
Above all, the most conspicuous thing about this discourse is that it is free from the bitterness which inevitably follows such shameful and absurd attacks. Instead of showing any wrath at this provocation, the discourse prescribes some laws and regulations and enjoins reformative commandments and issues wise instructions that were required at the time for the education and training of the Community. Incidentally, this teaches us how to deal with such provocative mischiefs coolly, wisely and generously. At the same time, it is a clear proof that this is not the word of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) but of a Being Who is observing all human conditions and affairs from the highest level, and guiding mankind without any personal prejudices, feelings and leanings. Had this been the word of the Holy Prophet; there would have been at least some tinge of natural bitterness in spite of his great generosity and forbearance, for it is but human that a noble man naturally become enraged when his own honor is attacked in this mean manner.
Irfan ul Quran
Sheikh ul Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri
A Brief IntroductionGreat intellectual, reformer, hadith-scholar, interpreter of the Holy Qur’an, author and organizational leader of contemporary times, Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, was born in Jhang city of Pakistan on February 19, 1951. He got his early education in Jhang and passed all examinations from matriculation to Masters with great distinctions. He did his LLB from the University of the Punjab in 1974 and in 1986 got his PhD on the topic of “Punishments in Islam, their Classification and Philosophy” from the same University.
His revered father Farid-e-Millat Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri was a top-notch scholar, reformer, expert doctor of medicine, eloquent poet, practicing mystic, lover of the Holy Prophet (saw) and multi-dimensional intellectual. He went through the phases of medical and religious education under the close supervision of prominent people in higher institutions of Delhi, Hyderabad Deccan, Lucknow, Sialkoat and Jhang. For acquisition of spiritual blessings and complete expertise in Islamic sciences, he undertook journey to visit great Islamic institutions of Arab countries including Syria and Iraq in particular and two sacred places of Islam namely Makkah and Madina. He happened to study under great scholarly personalities of Islamic world like Shaykh ‘Alawi bin ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki and Shaykh Muhammad al-Kittani during his stay there. He took his spiritual allegiance at the hands of Sayyidina Shaykh Ibrahim Saif-ud-Din Gilani of Baghdad. Due to his high literary and poetic taste, he had a number of meetings with the Poet of the East Allama Muhammad Iqbal during his youth. His internal spiritual yearning also led him to see Sayyid Pir Maher Ali Shah.
The prominent and most revered personalities of the time whose company Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri enjoyed included Sayyid Ahmad Sa‘eed Kazmi, Shaykh-ul-Islam Khawaja Muhammad Qamar-ud-Din Sialwi, Qibla Babu Ji, Shaykh-ul-Hadith Sardar Ahmad Qadri, Shaykh Qutb-ud-Din, Shaykh Abdul Ghafoor Hazarwi, Sahibzada Faiz-ul-Hasan Aalu Mahar Sharif, Shaykh Muhammad Umar Ichhrawi, Shaykh ‘Abd-ur-Rashid Rizwi, Shaykh ‘Abd-us-Sattar Khan Niazi and other prominent personalities of the Arab and non-Arab countries.
Shaykh-ul-Islam is the fruit of his father's prayers that he made at the Maqam Multazam in the holy Kaba before his birth. He said, “O Master of the worlds! Grant me a son who possesses Your gnosis and has deep knowledge of Your Religion; is a champion of a great Islamic, scholarly, intellectual, moral and political revolution and who benefits an age with his scholarship!” So when Allah Almighty granted this prayer, he was not only given the glad tidings of the birth of a son but the son was also named ‘Tahir’. True lover of the Holy Prophet (saw), Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri added Muhammad with Tahir due to the Prophetic reference and devoted his God-given scholarly, religious and spiritual capabilities for the education and training of Tahir. That is why his father took him to the holy city of Madina in his childhood in 1963 and got a great scholarly personality of the Islamic world, Shaykh Zia-ud-Din Madani, to inaugurate his religious studies in the Prophet's Mosque. On his arrival back to the country, Muhammad Tahir was formally admitted to Jamia Qutbiyya Rizwiyya (Jhang). He kept getting education of Dars Nizami from Shaykh ‘Abd-ur-Rashid Rizwi and his father till 1969 simultaneously with general education like Matriculation and FSc. In 1970, he completed Dawra Hadith from his father. In 1979 he was authorized to transmit Hadith by Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Saeed Kazimi. Likewise Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki also specially authorized him to narrate Hadith.
The names of a few prominent personalities who taught Shaykh-ul-Islam are given here below:
- Qudwat-ul-Awliya Sayyidina Tahir ‘Ala-ud-Din al-Qadri al-Gilani
- Shaykh Zia-ud-Din Ahmad Qadri al-Madani
- Farid-e-Millat Dr Farid-ud-Din Qadri
- Shaykh Abu al-Barkaat Sayyid Ahmad Qadri
- Mohaddith Azam Shaykh Muhammad Sardar Ahmad Qadri
- Ghazali Zaman Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
- Shaykh Ghulam Rasul Rizwi
- Dr Bhurhan Ahmad Farooqi
- Shaykh ‘Abd-ul-Ma‘bud al-Madani
- Shazkh ‘Ab-ur-Rashid Rizwi
- Prof Dr Bashir Ahmad Saddique
- Mohaddith Harem Sayyid ‘Alawi bin ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki
- Mohaddith Harem Sayed Muhammad bin ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki
- Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad al-Fatih al-Kittani
- Shaykh Husayn bin Ahmad ‘Usayran (a student of Imam Yusuf bin Isma‘il Nabhani)
He passed the competitive examination of Punjab Public Service Commission in 1974 and started his practical life as a lecturer in Islamic studies. He also practised as an attorney at law from 1976 to 1978 in the District Courts Jhang. Later on when he considered his shifting to Lahore necessary in view of organizational requirements, he remained associated with the Law College (University of the Punjab) as a lecturer of Islamic Law from 1978 to 1983. With the widening network of the mission, he resigned from the teaching profession to pay his undivided attention to it. However, on the insistence of the University, he agreed to serve as visiting Professor for LLM at the University Law College from 1983 to 1988. In addition to that, he also rendered his services in various capacities such as Member Punjab University Senate, Syndicate and Academic Council, advisor to Federal Shariah Court of Pakistan, Supreme Court of Pakistan and as an expert in the National Committee for Syllabus.
Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri had set the revival and spread of Islam as the purpose of his life from the very beginning. That is why he spent every moment of his life purposefully and constructively. The platform of youth by the name of ‘Mahaz-e-Hurriyat’ that he set up at the age of 24 in order to realize his dream of renaissance of Islam became the seat of learning and training of the Muslims of the entire world in the form of Minhaj-ul-Quran International. He also played effective and full role in the ‘Nizam Mustafa Movement’ in 1978. He also authored his first book on the topic of Nizam Mustafa: a Revolutionizing Message. In 1980, he launched his fortnightly lectures on Qur’an at the Shadman Colony Lahore. He formally founded Minhaj-ul-Quran International on October 17, 1980 and it was from its platform that he organized his organizational activities gradually. His lectures on the Holy Qur’an were also started at Islamabad and Karachi after Lahore under the banner of Minhaj-ul-Quran International. In 1983, he started his weekly lectures on Pakistan Television by the name of “Fahm-ul-Qur’an”. This program was the most successful and interesting program through which his introduction spread to every nook and corner of the country. Later on, his lectures and speeches started taking place in the foreign countries. He delivered hundreds of speeches on different topics abroad especially in the European countries. He also kept giving thoughtful lectures from time to time on diverse contemporary and intellectual topics in a number of universities of the European countries including America, Canada and Great Britain. These lectures are also telecast on different TV channels in the world today. They have also been printed in form of book.
Owing to his expertise on the modern and contemporary sciences, he undertook a comprehensive translation of the Holy Qur’an by the name of Irfan-ul-Qur’an, which encompasses scholarly, literary, intellectual and scientific aspects and is more easily understandable than the various Qur’anic translations done so far. It is also a beautiful manifestation of respect for Allah and His Prophet (saw). His historic, constructive work on interpretation of the Holy Qur’an and Hadith is yet another feather in his cap. He has embarked on the task of redesigning the entire collection of Hadith in accordance with new and contemporary demands and this series based on 20 huge volumes will be a valuable treasure for the new generations. His books al-Minhaj-us-Sawi and Jami‘-us-Sunnah on science of Hadith are links in the same chain. Besides this, he established the high status of Imam Abu Hanifa in the principles of Hadith with scholarly arguments and wrote down a book in three volumes. He is also the author of the voluminous book entitled Sirat-ur-Rasul (saw) written on the life of the Prophet in Urdu language. In addition to that, his more than three hundred books on politics, sociology, spiritualism and science are matchless intellectual accomplishment.
Along with the above-mentioned efforts, Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri enjoys the rare honour of organizing the largest private network in the field of education in Pakistan. One chartered university, a number of colleges and 572 schools have been established under this educational plan. He is also the chairman of the Board of Governors of Minhaj University (chartered by the Govt. of the Punjab). In these institutions, the youth are being imparted moral and intellectual education of high standard through a blend of modern and ancient sciences on comparatively cheaper rates.
He established Pakistan Awami Tehreek (Pakistan Peoples’ Movement) for the promotion of healthy political and democratic culture in the country, establishment of world peace and projection of principle-based political traditions. He has also been the Chairman of Pakistan Awami Ittihad, a grand opposition alliance of 19 national political and religious parties (including Pakistan Peoples’ Party) in 1997. He also got elected to the National Assembly on the same platform of PAT in the elections 2002. But he resigned from his seat as a protest against the unconstitutional and undemocratic steps of Pakistani leadership in October 2004. He has also served as Secretary-General of Aalami Ittehad al-Islami and vice-president of a representative organization of the Islamic world al-Mu‘tamar al-Aalami al-Islami. He also made extensive efforts for achieving harmony and reconciliation among the opposing sects and took practical steps for replacing their rivalries into mutual friendship. He always raised his voice for the rights of the minorities for improving mutual relations among the communities based on tolerance, inter-faith harmony and co-existence. He gathered all the minorities of Pakistan on the platform of Pakistan Awami Tehreek in this regard. He also set up Muslim-Christian Dialogue Forum as an expression of solidarity with the Christian community in particular.
He has also founded an international non-governmental organization by the name of Minhaj Welfare Foundation for the welfare of the poor and downtrodden sections of society. Welfare activities are organized under MWF not only for Pakistan but also for foreign countries. Minhaj Welfare Foundation has spent millions of rupees on the rehabilitation of the displaced people hit by natural disasters like earthquake and Tsunami etc.
He has also established following forums under Minhaj-ul-Quran International in order to unite people at its platform. Their names are given here below:
- Minhaj-ul-Quran Ulama Council
- Minhaj-ul-Quran Women League
- Minhaj-ul-Quran Youth League
- Mustafvi Students Movement
- Pakistan Awami Tehreek
- Pakistani Lawyers Movement
- Minhaj Welfare Foundation
- Muslim-Christian Dialogue Forum
- Council of Muslim Engineers and Technologists
The books of Shaykh-ul-Islam are also passing through various phases of translation into other regional and international languages in addition to Urdu, English and Arabic. He is the pioneering personality who has put the modern means of communication into use. The audio and video recording of his speeches has continued since the beginning. This was the time when a good number of religious scholars declared the video forbidden. His more than five thousand lectures and speeches on hundreds of topics are available on CDs, DVDs, and VCDs, which are the best means of propagation of message of Islam throughout the world. He is the only personality in the modern history whose treasure of speeches is available.
The multi-dimensional social efforts for human welfare and matchless achievements of Shaykh-ul-Islam especially in the field of research and writing have been acknowledged at the global level. He is, no doubt, international ambassador of peace, revivalist of Islam and wisdom of contemporary times. He is not merely an individual, rather a beacon of light and harbinger of the bright future of Muslim Umma.
|Birth and Family lineage: |
He is Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Yahya son of As-Sayyed Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Sa’id son of As-Sayyed Muhammad son of As-Sayyed Ali (the first to be called Al-Ninowy upon migration to northern Syria around the 1800’s), who’s family descends from the southern Iraqi village of Ninowa, the place where Al-Imam Al-Husayn was martyred, a partial area of which is also known as Karbala. Shaykh Muhammad’s 33rd grandfather is The known blind pious scholar, the flag bearer of the Sunnah of his time, Al-imam Ibrahim Al-Mujab, (the first one of the family of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam, to migrate to Ninowa and established an Islamic University system). The family then migrated from the village of Ninowa to the province of Ninowa, which lies in Northern Iraq, with a known mountainous region, that is famous for Olives and Olive Oil trades, which Shaykh Muhammad’s Family took part in. A venture which eventually led a part of the family to migrate to around Halab in Northern Syria. Al-Imam Ibrahim Al Mujab is the son of Al-Imam Muhammad Al-Aabed, son of Al Imam Musa Al Kathem, son of Al Imam Ja’far As-Saadeq, son of Al Imam Muhammad Al- Baqer, son of Al-Imam Zaynul’Abideen Ali,son of the Martyred Imam sayyidina Al-Husayn As-sibt, son of Maulana Al-Imam Ameer Al- Mu’mineen Ali bin Abi Taleb and the Lady Fatima Azzahra, daughter of the Best of the creation Sayyidina Muhammad bin Abdillah bin Abdil-Muttaleb bin Hashem from the tribe of Quraysh, sallallahu alayhi wa ala aalihi wa sallam.
When his 4th grandfather As-Sayyed Muhammad bin Ali immigrated for business and traded in olives and olive oil from Northern Iraq to Northern Syria, he settled in the north east parts of Aleppo (Halab) where he had his first born son As- Sayyed Sa’id who married a local woman and had a son; Sidi Muhammad bin Sa’id and a female named Amatullah. Sidi Muhammad married an honorable Lady named Fatima, and they had two sons : As-Sayyed Sa’id and As-Sayyed Yahya and 6 daughters. As-Sayyed Yahya (may Allah shower him with his Mercy and blessings and raise his rank in paradise) had two sons: Muhammad and Isa, may Allah protect them.
Shaykh Muhammad was born in Aleppo (Halab) the northern capital of Syria in 1386 AH in a family who maintained its religious and honorable Qur’an and Sunnah traditions.
Shaykh Muhammad began his study under his father, Sayyed Yahya, rahmatullahi alaih, memorising the Glorious Qur'an and acquiring knowledge in many of the Islamic disciplines, including Aqeedah, Fiqh, Hadith and Ihsaan, with ijaazas (license to teach). He particularly specialises in the fields of Hadeeth and Tawheed.
He attended Al- Azhar Sharif University, Faculty of Usool-uddeen, where he studied under many scholars. In addition, he was under the tutelage of many stars of this century who resided in Syria, Madina, Makkah, Tangiers, Fez, Rabat, Egypt, Sudan and Bilad Ashaam. He sat at the feet of, and was authorized by, many scholars such as Al-Imam Al- Hafeth As-Sayyed Abdullah bin Assidiqq Ghumari, Hafeth Abul Aziz bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, Hafeth Ibrahim bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, and Hafeth Hasan bin Assiddiqq Ghumari, radiaAllah anhum, Shaykh Hasan Qaribullah of Sudan, Shaykh Abdullah Al-Husayni, Shaykh Muhammad Al-Bata'ihi, Shaykh Jamil Ar-Rifaiy, Sayyed Al- Habib Al-Attas of Hadramout and others. Among the Mashayekh he learnt from are Shaykh Abdullah Siraj-Addin Al-Husayny, the Ba'Alawi scholars in Hijaz, Shaykh Abdullah At-Talidi, the Kittani Shuyukh, Shaykh Qaribullah of Sudan, the late Muhaddith Al-Haramayn Sayyed Muhammad Alawi Al-Maliki and many other honorable scholars.
Some of the books Shaykh Muhammad studied under his Shuyukh partially or wholly, and received Ijaza’s of Teaching in them with continued chain of narration, are as follows: Al-Qur’an Al-karim, Tafeer Al-Imam Al-Fakher Arrazy, Tafseer Al-Imam Al-Qurtubi, Tafseer Al-Imam At-Tabari, An- Nahrul Al Madd by Imam Abu Hayyan.
Took many books in Hadeeth and the Terminology of Hadeeth such as Nukhbatul Al-Fikr with the explanation by Hafedh Ibn Hajar, Al- bayquniyyah, Irshad Tullab Al-Haqaaeq by Imam Nawawi, Tadrib Arrawi by Imam Suyuti, Sahih Muslim with the explanation of Imam Nawawi, and Sahih Bukhari with the explanation of Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani.among others.