Articles of Faith - Rukun Iman
Consist of 6 pillars
Faith in Allah - Beriman kepada Allah
Faith in Angels - Beriman kepada Malaikat
Faith in the Devine Book - Beriman kepada Kitab
Faith in the Messengers - Beriman kepada Rasul
الإيمان باليوم الآخر
Faith in the Last Day - Beriman kepada Hari Akhirat
الإيمان بالقضاء والقدر
Faith in the Divine Will and Decree - Beriman kepada Qada' dan Qadar
Hadis on Articles of Faith
وعن عمر أيضا قال: بينما نحن جلوس عند رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- ذات يوم، إذ طلع علينا رجل شديد بياض الثياب، شديد سواد الشعر، لا يرى عليه أثر السفر، ولا يعرفه منا أحد حتى جلس إلى النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه، ووضع كفيه على فخذيه. فقال: يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام، قال: الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله، وتقيم الصلاة، وتؤتي الزكاة، وتصوم رمضان، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا. قال: صدقت، فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه! فقال: فأخبرني عن الإيمان، قال: أن تؤمن بالله، وملائكته، وكتبه، ورسله، واليوم الآخر، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره. قال: صدقت. قال: فأخبرني عن الإحسان، قال: أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك. قال: فأخبرني عن الساعة، قال: ما المسئول عنها بأعلم من السائل. قال: فأخبرني عن أماراتها، قال: أن تلد الأمة ربتها، وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاة يتطاولون في البنيان. ثم انطلق فلبثت مليًّا، ثم قال: يا عمر أتدري من السائل؟ قلت: الله
ورسوله أعلم، قال: هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم دينكم
( رواه مسلم )
On the authority of 'Umar, who said: "While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah upon him, there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of travel were visible on him, and none of us knew him. He sat down close by the Prophet, peace and blessings upon him, rested his knees against his knees and placed his palms on his thighs, and said, O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam." Muhammad said, "Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform salah (ritual prayer), pay the zakah (alms), fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it)." Said he (the man), "You have spoken truly." We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about Iman (faith)." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, "It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects." He said, "You have spoken truly." Then he (the man) said, "Inform me about Ihsan." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, " It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you." He said, "Inform me about the Hour." He (the Messenger of Allah) said, "About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner." So he said, "Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming)." Said he, "They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings." Thereupon the man went off. I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allah) said, "O 'Umar, do you know who that questioner was?" I replied, "Allah and His Messenger know better." He said, "That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion."
The word "scriptures" or book of Allah refers to the original scriptures that were given to certain prophets.
Prophet Musa a.s (Moses) received the Taurat (Torah),
Prophet Daud a.s (David) received the Zabur (Psalms),
Prophet Isa a.s (Jesus) inspired the Injil (Gospel),
Prophet Muhammad s.a.w received the Qur'an.
Belief of Ahl al-Sunnah concerning
al Qada’ wal Qadar
(Divine Will and Decree)
Could you explain to me the Islamic view of the Divine Will and Decree (al-qada’ wa’l-qadar)? What should I believe with regard to this topic?.
Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.
We could talk at length about the Islamic view of the Divine will and decree but to make the subject easier to understand, we will start with an overview of this topic, then explain as much as space permits, asking Allaah to benefit us thereby and to accept our efforts.
Note that what is meant by belief in al-qada’ (the Divine will) is: certain belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will and decree of Allaah.
Belief in al-qadar (the Divine decree) is the sixth pillar of faith, and no one’s faith is complete without it. In Saheeh Muslim (8) it is narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) heard that some people were denying al-qadar. He said: “If I meet these people I will tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. By the One by Whom ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar swore, if one of them had gold equivalent to Mount Uhud and he spent it, Allaah would not accept it from him unless he believed in al-qadar.”
You should also note that belief in al-qadar is not valid unless you believe in the four aspects of al-qadar, which are as follows:
1 – Belief that Allaah knows all things, in general terms and in detail, from eternity to eternity. Not a single atom is unknown to Him in the heavens or on earth.
2 – Belief that Allaah has decreed all things in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.
3 – Belief that the will of Allaah is irresistable and His decree is comprehensive, so nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, but by His will.
4 – Belief that all that exists was created by Allaah. He is the Creator of all beings and the Creator of their attributes and actions, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Such is Allaah, your Lord! Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things”
Correct belief in al-qadar also involves believing in the following:
That the individual has free will by means of which he acts, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight”
“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
That a person’s will and ability do not operate outside the will and decree of Allaah, Who is the One Who has given him that ability and made him able to distinguish (between good and evil) and make his choice, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
That al-qadar is Allaah’s plan for His creation. What He has shown us of it, we know and believe in, and what He has hidden from us, we accept and believe in. We do not dispute with Allaah concerning His actions and rulings with our limited minds and comprehension, rather we believe in Allaah’s complete justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be asked about what He does, may He be glorified and praised.
This is a summary of the belief of the first generations concerning this important topic. We will discuss some of this in more detail below, asking Allaah to help us to say the right thing:
1 – The meaning of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Arabic:
The word qada’ means perfection and completion, and the word qadar means evaluating and planning.
2 – Definition of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Islamic terminology:
Qadar means Allaah’s decree of all things from eternity, and His knowledge that they will come to pass at the times that are known to Him and in the specific manner that He has decreed and willed. They will happen the way they are meant to and the way they are created.
3 – Is there a difference between al-qada’ and al-qadar?
Some of the scholars said that there was a difference between them, but perhaps the most correct view is that there is no difference in meaning between al-qada’ and al-qadar, and that each of them points to the meaning of the other. There is no clear evidence in the Qur’aan or Sunnah to indicate that there is a difference between them. The scholars are agreed that the one may be applied to the other, but it should be noted that the word qadar is most usually used in the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, which indicates that we must believe in this pillar. And Allaah knows best.
4 – The status of belief in al-qadar in Islam:
Belief in al-qadar is one of the six pillars of faith which were mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when Jibreel (peace be upon him) asked him about faith (eemaan). He said: “(It is) to believe in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in the Divine will and decree (al-qadar) both good and bad.” Narrated by Muslim, 8. Al-qadar is also mentioned in the Qur’aan, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)”
“And the Command of Allaah is a decree determined [qadran maqdooran]”
5 – Aspects of belief in al-qadar:
Note, may Allaah help you to do that which pleases Him, that belief in al-qadar cannot be complete until you believe in the following four aspects of this doctrine:
(a) Knowledge: this is the belief that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things and not a single atom in the heavens or on earth falls outside of His knowledge. Allaah knew all of His creation before He created them. He knew what they would do by means of His ancient and eternal knowledge. There is a great deal of evidence that points to this such as the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“He is Allaah, beside Whom Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”
“and that Allaah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge”
(b) Writing: this is the belief that Allaah has written the decrees concerning all created beings in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz. The evidence for that is the verse in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Know you not that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allaah”
[al-Hajj 22:16]And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah wrote the decrees concerning all created beings fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” Narrated by Muslim, 2653.
(c) Will: this is the belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will of Allaah. Whatever Allaah wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing exists outside of His will. The evidence for that is in the verses where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And never say of anything, ‘I shall do such and such thing tomorrow.’
24. Except (with the saying), ‘If Allaah wills!’”
[al-Kahf 18:23, 24]
“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
(d) Creation: this is the belief that Allaah is the Creator of all things, including people’s actions. Nothing happens in this universe but He is its Creator, because He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah is the Creator of all things”
“While Allaah has created you and what you make”
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has made every doer and what he does.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ibaad (25) and by Ibn Abi ‘Aasim in al-Sunnah (257 and 358); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Saheehah, 1637.
Shaykh Ibn Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Just as Allaah is the One Who created them – meaning people – He has also created that by means of which they act, namely their abilities and will, then they do various actions of obedience and sin, by the abilities and will which Allaah has created. (al-Durrah al-Bahiyyah Sharh al-Qaseedah al-Taa’iyyah, p. 18).
Warning against arguing about issues of al-qadar on the basis of (human) reasoning:
Belief in al-qadar is the real test of the extent of a person’s belief in Allaah. It is the true test of how much a person really knows about his Lord and what results from this knowledge of certain and sincere faith in Allaah, and His attributes of majesty and perfection. That is because al-qadar raises many questions for the one who gives free rein to his reasoning to try to fully comprehend it. There have been many disputes concerning the issue of al-qadar and many people have engaged in debates and misinterpreted the verses of the Qur’aan that mention it. Indeed, the enemies of Islam in all eras have provoked confusion in the Muslims’ beliefs by discussing the issue of al-qadar and stirring up doubts about it. So no one can have true and certain faith except the one who knows Allaah by His beautiful names and sublime attributes, submitting to His commands with peace of mind and trusting in his Lord. In that case no doubts or specious arguments can find a way into his heart. Undoubtedly this is the greatest proof that belief in al-qadar is more important than belief in the other pillars of faith, and that the human mind cannot independently come to understand al-qadar, because al-qadar is one of the mysteries of Allaah in His creation; whatever Allaah has disclosed to us in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we know, accept and believe in, and whatever our Lord has not told us, we believe in and we believe in His perfect justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned.
And Allaah knows best. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.
See: A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 147; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd.