Nov 26, 2011

The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam by The Honorable Sheikh Yusuf Abdullah al-Qardawi شيخ يوسف عبد الله القرضاوي

The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam
شيخ يوسف عبد الله القرضاوي
Sheikh Yusuf Abdullah al-Qardawi

Definitions
Introduction

Chapter 1: The Islamic Principles Pertaining to Halal and Haram
  • The Basic Asl Refers to the Permissibility of Things
  • To Make Lawful and to Prohibit Is the Right of Allah Alone
  • Prohibiting the Halal and Permitting the Haram Is Similar to Committing Shirk
  • The Prohibition of Things Is Due to Their Impurity and Harmfulness
  • What is Halal Is Sufficient, While What is Haram Is Superfluous
  • Whatever Is Conducive to the Haram Is Itself Haram
  • Falsely Representing the Haram as Halal Is Prohibited
  • Good Intentions Do Not Make the Haram Acceptable
  • Doubtful Things Are To Be Avoided
  • The Haram Is Prohibited to Everyone Alike
  • Necessity Dictates Exceptions
Chapter 2: The Halal And The Haram In The Private Life of Muslim
Section 1: Food and Drink
  • The Attitude of the Brahmins Toward Slaughtering Animals and Eating Meat
  • Animals Prohibited to the Jews and Christians
  • The Attitude of the Pre-Islamic Arabs
  • Islam Permits What Is Wholesome
    • The Prohibition of Eating What Is Dead and Its Wisdom
    • The Prohibition of Flowing Blood
    • Pork
    • That Which Is Dedicated to Anyone Other Than Allah
    • Types of Dead Animals
    • Reasons for the Prohibition of the Foregoing Categories
    • Animal Sacrifices
    • The Exemption of Sea Food and Locusts
    • Making Use of the Skin, Bones, and Hair of the Animal
  • Necessity Dictates Exceptions
  • Medical Necessity
  • Necessity Does Not Exist if the Society Possesses Excess Food
  • The Islamic Manner of Slaughtering
    • All Marine Animals Are Halal
    • Prohibited Terrestrial Animals
    • The Requirement of Slaughtering in the Islamic Manner
    • The Conditions of Islamic Slaughtering
    • The Wisdom of the Islamic Manner of Slaughtering
    • The Significance of Mentioning Allah's Name
    • Animals Slaughtered by the People of the Book
    • Animals Slaughtered for Churches and Christian Festivals
    • Animals Slaughtered By Electric Shock and Other Methods
    • The Meat of Zoroastrians and Others Like Them
    • A Rule: What We Do Not See Should Not Be Probed Into
  • Hunting
    • Conditions Pertaining to the Hunter
    • Conditions Pertaining to the Game
    • Conditions Pertaining to the Instrument
    • Hunting with Weapons
    • Hunting with Dogs and the Like
    • When the Game is Found Dead
  • Intoxicants
    • All That Intoxicates Is Haram
    • Whatever Intoxicates in Large Amounts is Haram in Any Amount
    • Trading in Alcohol
    • Alcohol Cannot Be Given as a Gift
    • Avoiding Drinking Parties
    • Alcohol, Itself a Disease, Cannot Be a Medicine
  • Drugs
    • The Consumption of Harmful Things is Haram
Section 2 : Clothing and Adornment
  • Cleanliness and Beautification Are Characteristics of Islam
  • Gold and Silk
    • Gold and Pure Silk are Haram for Men
    • The Wisdom of These Two Prohibitions Concerning Men
    • Why Gold and Silk are Permitted to Women
  • The Dress of the Muslim
    • The Dress of the Muslim Woman
    • Concerning Woman's Imitating Man and Vice Versa
    • Dressing for the Sake of Ostentation and Pride
  • Artificial Changes of Features
    • Going to Extremes in Beautification by Changing What Allah Created
    • The Prohibition of Tattooing, Cutting the Teeth, and Undergoing Surgery for Beautification
    • Plucking the Eyebrows
    • Wigs and Hairpieces
    • Dyeing the Hair
    • Letting the Beard Grow
Section 3: The Home
  • Items Related to Luxurious Living and Paganism
  • The Use of Gold and Silver
    • Gold and Silver Utensils
  • Satutes
    • Islam Prohibits Statues
    • The Wisdom of Prohibiting Statues
    • The Islamic Manner of Commemorating the Great
    • The Exemption of Children's Toys
    • Incomplete or Defaced Statues
    • Paintings and One-Dimensional Ornaments
    • The Permissibility of a Debased Figure
  • Photographs
    • The Subject Matter of Photographs
    • A Summary of the Rulings Pertaining to Figures awl Their Makers
  • Dogs
    • Keeping Dogs Without Necessity
    • The Permissibility of Keeping Hunting Dogs and Watch Dogs
    • The Findings of Scientific Research Relative to Keeping Dogs
Section 4: Work and Earning Livelihood
  • The Obligation to Work If One Is Able
  • When Begging is Allowable
  • Dignity of Work
  • Agriculture
    • Earning Through Agriculture
    • Prohibited Crops
  • Industries
    • Industries and Professions
    • Industries and Professions Condemned by Islam
  • Trade
    • Prohibited Kinds of Trade
    • Salaried Employment
    • Prohibited Types of Employment
  • A General Rule in Earning a Living
Chapter 3: The Halal And The Haram In Marriage And Family Life
Section 1: The Physical Appetites
  • The Prohibition of Approaching Zina
  • Khulwah
  • Looking With Desire at the Opposite Sex
  • The Prohibition of Looking at the 'Awrah of Others
  • What May Be Seen of the Man or Woman
  • The Display of Women's Adornment: What Is and What Is Not
  • Women's 'Awrah
  • Concerning Women Going to Public Baths
  • The Prohibition of the Display of Women's Attractions
  • How a Muslim Woman Should Conduct Herself
  • A Woman's Serving Male Guests
  • Sexual Perversion: A Major Sin
  • A Ruling Concerning Masturbation
Section 2: Marriage
  • No Monasticism in Islam
  • Seeing the Woman to Whom One Proposes Marriage
  • Prohibited Proposals
  • The Consent of the Girl
  • Women To Whom Marriage is Prohibited
    • Marriages Prohibited by Reason of Fosterage
    • In-Law Relationships
    • Sisters as Co-Wives
    • Married Women
    • Mushrik Women
  • Marriage to the Women of the People of the Book
  • The Prohibition of a Muslim Woman's Marrying a Non-Muslim Man
  • Fornicatresses
  • Temporary Marriage (Mut'ah)
  • Marrying More Than One Woman
  • Justice Among Wives - A Condition
  • Why Marriage to More Than One Woman is Permitted in Islam
Section 3: The Relationship Between Husband and Wife
  • The Sexual Relationship
  • Prohibited Intercourse
  • Guarding the Secrets Between the Husband and Wife
Section 4: Contraception
  • Valid Reasons for Contraception
  • Abortion
Section 5: Divorce
  • Mutual Tolerance Between Husband and Wife
  • Rebelliousness and Strife
  • When Divorce Becomes Permissible
  • Divorce in the Pre-Islamic Period
  • Divorce in Judaism
  • Divorce in Christianity
    • Differences Among Christian Denominations Regarding Divorce
    • Consequences of the Christian Stand on Divorce
    • The Christian Stand on Divorce: A Temporary Injunction, Not a Permanent Law
  • The Islamic Limits for the Regulation of Divorce
  • The Prohibition of Divorcing During Menstruation
  • Taking an Oath of Divorce
  • Where the Divorcee Resides During the Waiting Period
  • Repeated Divorce
  • Reconciling Honorably or Separating with Kindness
  • The Divorced Woman's Freedom to Remarry
  • The Woman's Right to Demand Divorce
  • The Prohibition of ill-treatment
  • The Prohibition of the Oath of Desertion
Section 6: The Relationship Between Parents and Children
  • The Protection of the Lineage
  • The Prohibition of Denying Paternity
  • The Prohibition of Legal Adoption
    • A Practical Example of the Abolition of Legal Adoption
  • Adopting a Child to Rear and to Educate
  • Artificial Insemination
  • Attributing the Child to a Man Other Than the Child's Father
  • "Do Not Kill Your Children"
  • Equal Treatment of Children
  • Observing the Limits of Allah Regarding Inheritance
  • Disobedience to Parents: A Major Sin
  • Insulting Parents: A Major Sin
  • The Parent's Consent for Jihad
  • Non-Muslim Parents
Chapter 4: The Halal And The Haram In The Daily Life of The Muslim
  • Section 1: Beliefs and Customs
  • Respect for Allah's Laws in the Universe
  • The War Against Superstitions and Myths
  • Believing in Those Who Foretell the Future Constitutes Kufr
  • Divination With Arrows
  • Magic
  • Charms and Amulets
  • Omens
  • The War Against Jahili Customs
  • No Chauvinism in Islam
  • Lineage is Without Significance
  • Mourning for the Dead
Section 2: Business Transactions
  • The Prohibition of Selling Haram Goods
  • The Prohibition of a Sale Involving Uncertainty
  • Price Manipulation
  • The Condemnation of Hoarding
  • Interference in the Free Market
  • The Permissibility of Brokerage
  • Exploitation and Fraud
  • "He Who Deceives Us Is Not of Us"
  • Frequent Swearing
  • Withholding Full Measure
  • The Prohibition of Buying Stolen Property
  • The Prohibition of Interest
  • The Wisdom of Prohibiting Interest
  • The Borrower on Interest and the Writer of the Deed
  • Concerning the Prophet's Seeking Refuge with Allah from
  • Sale for Deferred Payment (Credit)
  • Payment in Advance
  • Partnership Between Capital and Labor
  • Partnership Among Owners of Capital
  • Insurance Companies
    • Do Insurance Companies Constitute Cooperatives?
    • A Modification
    • The Islamic System of Insurance
  • The Use of Cultivable Land
    • 1. Cultivating the Land Himself
    • 2. Lending the Land to Others for Cultivation
    • 3. Taking a Proportion of the Crop
    • 4. Renting the Land for Money
  • Partnership in Raising Animals
Section 3: Recreation and Play
  • "A Time for This and a Time for That"
  • The Humanness of the Messenger of Allah
  • Relaxing the Mind
  • Permissible Sports
    • Foot Racing
    • Wrestling
    • Archery
    • Spear Play
    • Horseback Riding
    • Hunting
  • Playing with Dice: Backgammon
  • Playing Chess
  • Singing and Music
  • Gambling, the Companion of Drinking
  • The Lottery, a Form of Gambling
  • Movies
Section 4: Social Relationships
  • The Unlawfulness of Severing Ties with a Fellow Muslim
  • Settling Disputes
  • "Let Not Some People Mock at Other People"
  • "Do Not Slander"
  • "Do Not Revile by Nicknames"
  • Suspicion
  • Spying
  • Backbiting
  • Spreading Gossip
  • The Sacredness of Honor
  • The Sacredness of Life
  • "The Murderer and the Murdered Will Be in Hell"
  • The Sanctity of the Lives of Allies and Non-Muslim Residents
  • Capital Punishment
  • Suicide
  • The Sanctity of Property
  • The Prohibition of Bribery
  • Gifts to Officials
  • Bribery to Redress a Wrong
  • Wasteful Spending
Section 5: Social Relationships
  • Special Consideration for the People of the Book
  • Non-Muslim Residents of an Islamic State
  • Meaning of Friendship with Non-Muslims
  • Seeking Help From Non-Muslims
  • The Extension of Islam's Universal Mercy to Animals
Concluding Remarks  

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REVIEWER'S NOTE

The methodology of this book is unique in dealing with the many subjects it covers. In fact, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi is a pioneer, the first to handle this subject using this particular approach. He has attempted, with considerable success in the Arabic original, to collect and summarize the issues from both ancient and modern Islamic references. Being himself a recognized Islamic scholar, he has had to make a judgement in selecting those points of view which he strongly felt meet the needs of Muslims in reference to the changing circumstances of this time.

However, this by no means presents all dimensions of the "discussion relating to each issue, which it is impossible to cover in a book of this modest size. Although the present volume is very useful, it cannot by itself fill the gaps, meet the challenges, or answer the multitude of questions which face Muslim communities living in the Western world. It is time that sincere and qualified Muslim scholars who have lived in the West, and who possess mastery of the Islamic fiqh, introduce into English a fiqh which will meet our Islamic needs in this part of the world, one which will demonstrate the ability of Islam, as Allah's final message to mankind, to meet the changing requirements of human society. We hope that this call to our brothers and sisters will not be lost, and that the Muslims in North America will carry out the responsibilities which confront them in a forceful and dynamic fashion. Insha'Allah the day will not be far off when the major reference works available in the Islamic languages - Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Turkish, etc. - will be accurately translated into English, giving the English-speaking Muslims the privilege of drawing their own conclusions concerning the many issues which confront them today.

We pray that Allah will forgive us, and that He will bless our work and make it useful for the Muslims of the English-speaking world.
Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Hammad

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