Nov 22, 2011

Music Therapy in Islam plus Fatwa on Music

  Music Therapy in Islamic Culture

Through the history of Islamic civilization it has been chiefly the mystic sects (Sufis) which have been involved with music, used and defended it. The Sufis mention that mental and nervous disorders are cured by music.
The great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Zekeriya Er-Razi (854-932), Farabi (870-950) and İbn Sina(980-1037) established scientific principles concerning musical treatment, especially of psychological disorders.

In his book, “Musiki-ul-kebir,” Farabi attempted to set forth the relationship between music and physics and astronomy. According to Farabi, the effects of the makams of Turkish music on the soul were classified as follows:
  1. Rast makam: brings a person happiness and comfort.
  2. Rehavi makam: brings a person the idea of eternity.
  3. Kuçek makam: brings a person sadness and anguish.
  4. Büzürk makam: brings a person fear.
  5. Isfahan makam: brings a person the capacity of action, the sense of security.
  6. Neva makam: brings a person pleasure and contentment.
  7. Uşşak makam: brings a person the feeling of laughter.
  8. Zirgüle makam: brings a person sleep.
  9. Saba makam: brings a person cesaret,kuvvet.
  10. Buselik makam: brings a person strength.
  11. Hüseyni makam: brings a person serenity, ease.
  12. Hicaz makam: brings a person humility.
Farabi also outlined the effects of the makams of Turkish music according to the times they were effective:
  1. Rehavi makam: effective at pre-dawn.
  2. Hüseyni makam: effective at dawn.
  3. Rast makam: effective in early morning.
  4. Buselik makam: effective in mid morning.
  5. Zirgüle makam: effective toward noon.
  6. Uşşak makam: effective at noon.
  7. Hicaz makam: effective in the afternoon.
  8. Irak makam: effective in late afternoon.
  9. Isfahan makam: effective at dusk.
  10. Neva makam: effective in the evening.
  11. Büzürk makam: effective in late evening.
  12. Zirefkend makam: effective during the time of sleep.
The great Islamic thinker and philosopher Ibn Sina (980-1037) wrote that he gained much from Farabi’s works, and even learned music from him and applied it in his practice. He said, “One of the best and most effective of treatments is to strengthen the mental and spiritual strengths of the patient, to give him more courage to fight illness, create a loving, pleasant environment for the patient, play the best music for him and surround him with people that he loves.”

According to Ibn Sina, “sound” was essential to our existence. Sounds arranged within a musical order, and in a particular fashion, would have a deep reaching effect on one’s soul. The effect of sound was enriched by man’s art. Ibn Sina also believed that changes of pitch would determine a person’s mood. What allows us to appreciate a musical composition is not our sense of hearing, but our sense of perception, which allows us to derive various inspirations from that composition. For this reason, well-attuned, harmonious tones, and the adherence of compositions and rhythms to principles, can have a captivating effect on people.

In conclusion, during the period of Islamic civilization, Turkish-Muslim doctors such as Er-Razi, Farabi and Ibn Sna used musical and pharmacological methods in the treatment of psychological disorders, and these methods, applied by both Selçuk and Ottoman doctors, were cultivated up until the 18th century.

 Assistant Professor Dr. Pinar Somakçi
Turkish MusicPortal

Turkish doctors call the tune with traditional musical cures

Istanbul hospital revives complementary therapy for a range of illnesses by playing ancient Arabesque scales and patterns.

 Anaesthetist Dr Erol Can (left), playing a yayli tanbur, an Ottoman violin 
with Professor Bingur Sönmez holding a flute. Doctors in the Istanbul hospital 
are reviving ancient musical therapy for a variety of illnesses. 
Photograph: Jonathan Lewis

Mahur makam - a rousing music mode, used as treatment for depression
The above file from source of this posting was disappeared
so I replace the one found on Youtube

Standing by the bed of a Cypriot patient who has just undergone vascular surgery, Dr Bingür Sönmez consults a screen monitoring pulse and blood pressure.

Then a colleague pulls out a flute and starts playing a popular Turkish tune.

If that appears an unusual approach to modern medicine, then it is. But according to doctors at the reassuringly modern Memorial hospital in Istanbul, it is producing results.

Here, Sönmez and his colleague, Dr Erol Can, are reviving traditional Islamic music therapy, a form of medical treatment that is almost 1,000 years old.

And they are convinced that, if used as a complementary therapy, ancient Arabesque scales and modes can produce significant psychological and physiological outcomes.

Can, chief anaesthetist in the intensive care unit of the department, says that he discovered music therapy when he worked in a Sofia hospital in his native Bulgaria.

Hicaz makam - beneficial when dieting
The above file from source of this posting was disappeared
so I replace the one found on Youtube


"Back then I used a tape recorder and headphones." When he emigrated to Turkey in 1996, he gradually started to replace recorded music with live instruments.

Segah makam - to help the patient relax and help against insomnia and sleeping disorders
The above file from source of this posting was disappeared
so I replace the one found on Youtube


"I learned to play the ney flute in order to play the kind of music that was used in traditional music therapy hundreds of years ago, making use of the psychological and physiological effects of the makam."

The makam – from the Arab word maqam – is a musical mode unique to classic Arabic and Turkish music. It defines the pitches, patterns and development of a musical piece. The term refers to a very wide variety of different tone scales that must be largely learned by ear.
Saba makam - for meditation
 The above file from source of this posting was disappeared
so I replace the one found on Youtube


"There is a different makam for every illness, every health problem," Sönmez says. "There are makamlar that agitate, and there are makamlar that relax." Playing a few notes on his ney, Can adds: "The so-called rast makami has a positive effect if a patient suffers from anorexia, whereas the hicaz makami should be played if a patient needs to be kept on a diet."

He laughs. "A restaurant that plays music in the hicaz mode would probably go out of business after a while, because it keeps customers from eating!"

"We are not doing anything new, and we are not reinventing the wheel," Sönmez says with a shrug. "The positive effects of music therapy have been known for well over 900 years."

The use of makam was integrated into medieval Islamic medicine as early as the 9th century, when scholar and philosopher Al Farabi discussed and catalogued the effect of different musical modes on body and psyche.

As Can plays Akdeniz Geceleri, a popular Turkish song, to the Cypriot patient, she tries gently to sing along, visibly relaxing.

Sönmez stresses that music is no substitute for conventional medical treatment. "We don't use music as an alternative to modern medical methods", he says. "It's complementary treatment. Without having to prescribe additional drugs, five to 10 minutes of a certain musical piece lowers the heart rate and blood pressure.

"Medieval hospitals were built around a courtyard with a fountain. The sound of the water, the colours of glass windows, the intensity of the light, the types of flowers and plants – all of it was part of the complementary treatment of patients," Sönmez explains. "We are thinking of changing the light in the intensive care unit to pink," he adds with a smile. "Pink light has a soothing effect."

There are signs that the medical pipers may inspire others to follow suit. "We have been using makam for five years in our department," Can says.

"Now colleagues started to consult us, a surgeon from the paediatric ward now takes ney lessons from me.

"And sometimes, we play for our colleagues who are on a break. That way, everybody is cared for."

Great Islamic Thinker and Philosopher
( Al-Razi, Al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina )
used musical and pharmacological methods 
in the treatment of psychological disorders
-Assistant Professor Dr. Pinar Somakçi-

Al- Farabi
Abu Nasr al-Farabi (259-339 H / 870-950 AD)

Ibnu Sina
ABU ‘ALI AL-HUSAYN (980-1037)



Qasedah with music
Hati Curio

Music in Islam - The Hukum

Sheikh Kamal El Mekki

Sheikh Kamal El Mekki

Sheikh ul Islam Dr Tahir ul Qadri

Nouman Ali Khan

Sheikh Yusuf Estes

Below clips presented in Bahasa Melayu

Maulana Muhammad Asri Yusuf

Fatwa yang mengharuskan muzik sama ada mendengar maupun bermain 
muzik adalah fatwa Ibnu Hazam az-Zohiri, (salah seorang tokoh mazhab Zohiri)
Fatwa that say the hukum in listening or playing music instrument is harus 
was from Ibnu Hazam Az-Zohiri (one of the sect leaders/mazhab Zohiri)

Ustaz Kazim Elias
(Hukum on Singing & Muzik)

Abu Zulfiqar Amsyari

Link to Fatwa on Music

I have always heard that music, singing and dancing are haram in Islam. I went to this other site for the first time,XXX, and typed in music and all of these articles appeared which said music,dancing, and singing in Islam is halal??? They said "as long as the 2 sexes are not close together and their is no drinking going on" etc. and they even have hadiths that try to prove our Prophet Muhammed s.a.w was ok with this??? I am very confused now... Could you PLEASE give a full, detailed explanation about the Islamic ruling on music, singing and dancing and when it is allowed, if it is even allowed at all. 

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