Oct 26, 2012

Hajj حج Haji - Eid Adha عيد الأضحى‎ 'Idul Adha - Kurban قربان Qurban

What is 'Idul Adha

In Islaam, Muslims have 2 celebrations:

1) Eid Al-Fitr (after completing fasting the month of Ramadan)

2) Eid Al-Adha (the day of slaughtering) is on the 10th of the Islamic Month Dhul Hijjah. It marks the conclusion of the major rites of Hajj, and commemorates Allah's bounty on His Messenger Ibraheem, when He gave him a ram to sacrifice as ransom for his son Ismaa`eel, (peace be upon them both).

For More Info: 2eids.com

Takbir 'Idul Adha

The Significance of Eid  
By Imam Ali Siddiqui

Aayshah (ra) reported that the Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: “For every people there is a feast and this is our feast.” Hadith, Sahih Al-Bukhari

Historical Background

Anas (ra) reported that when the Prophet Muhammad (saw) migrated from Makkah to Madinah, the people of Madinah used to have two festivals. On those two days they had carnivals and festivity. Prophet Muhammad (saw) asked the Ansar (the Muslims of Madinah) about it. They replied that before Islam they used to have carnivals on those two joyous days. The Prophet Muhammad (saw) told them: 'Instead of those two days, Allah has appointed two other days which are better, the days of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.' (Hadith) 

The root word for Eid is ‘aa-da meaning he or it returned. Literally it means “the time of return of joy and of grief”. Therefore it signifies a festival. The word Eid appeared in Sura al-Maida, Table Spread, chapter 5 meaning a solemn festival. The Disciples of Isa (as) requested him to pray to his Lord to send down a Table Spread with festive food to eat of it, satisfy their hear, and may be Witnesses to the miracles (Q 5:115-6). Isa (as) prayed to Allah: “O Our Lord! Send us a Table Spread with festive food, that there may be for us, for the first and last of us - Eid, a solemn festival and a Sign from You; and provide for our sustenance, for You are the Best Sustainer.” (Q 5:117)


Eid al-Fitr is celebrated on the first day of Shawwal, at the completion of Ramadan. Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. The Eid al-Fitr is a very joyous day; it is a true Thanksgiving Day for the believing men and women. On this day Muslims show their real joy for the health, strength and the opportunities of life, which Allah has given to them to fulfill their obligation of fasting and other good deeds during the blessed month of Ramadan. 

صلاة العيد الأضحى من روسيآ
Solat 'Idul Adha & Kurban - Russia

Khutbah 'Idul Adha
Sheikh Hamza Yusuf

Judicial (Fiqhi) Issues

Qurban Ritual

Qurban ritual, which is a means to get closer to Allah, is the appropriate slaughtering of certain types of animals that are fit to be sacrificed with the intention of worship. There are different Qurban types such as udhiyah (sacrificial slaughtering during Eid al-Adha), nazhr, aqiqah and the one performed during Hajj ritual.

Although udhiyah sacrifice is sunnah in most Islamic schools of fiqh, it is obligatory (wajib) in Hanafi school. However, the fact that a ritual is not obligatory does not cancel its rituality and does not require change in the way it is performed. Rituals have form, conditions and elements as well as reasons, objectives and reasons for obligating. These aspects cannot be separated when it comes to rituals. Qurban ritual has many objectives and reasons. It is not simply a ritual with the aim of distributing meat. In fact, the distribution of meat is sunnah not wajib. The essence of Qurban ritual is material sacrifice that brings us closer to Allah and obedience to Allah’s order. The Quran states that animal sacrifice was a ritual also performed by ancient nations and communities. Quran says “Recite to them the truth of the story of the two sons of Adam. Behold! They each presented a sacrifice (to Allah: It was accepted from one, but not from the other…” (Maidah: 27). The Surah Saffat clearly states that Allah presented Prophet Ibrahim a sacrifice to be sacrificed instead of Prophet Ismail (Saffat: 107). Other verses concerning Qurban ritual are as follow:

“..In order that they may gain their benefit, and mention the name of Allah on the appointed days as He has bestowed the sustenance to them – the inarticulate animals; therefore eat from them yourself and feed the distressed destitute.” (Hajj: 28)

“And for every nation we have appointed a sacrifice, that they may mention the name of Allah over the inarticulate animal which He has provided them…” (Hajj: 34)

“Never does their flesh nor their blood reach Allah, but your piety successfully reaches Him…” (Hajj: 37)

Qurban ritual began to be performed in the second year after Hijra and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performed udhiyah for 10 years starting with Hijra (Tirmidhi: 20, K. al-Edahi:11 hadith number: 1507).

He who performs Qurban ritual has approached Allah and has gained His contentment. Qurban is also an example of social assistance and solidarity. Materially, mostly the poor benefit from sacrificed animals.
a. Who is obligated to perform Qurban ritual ?

Every Muslim who is of sound mind, who has reached the age of puberty, resident and possesses wealth that is in excess of one’s basic needs is obligated to perform Qurban ritual. A person who possesses 80.18 gram gold or its equivalent money or possessions after deduction of his/her needs and debt is regarded as wealthy and therefore should sacrifice an animal as an expression of blessings Allah bestowed upon him/her and expression of sacrifice for the sake of Allah.
b. Which animals can be sacrificed as Qurban and what are their specifications ?

Only sheep, goat, cow, buffalo and camel can be offered in sacrifice. Other animals cannot be slaughtered as sacrifice. It is necessary that the goat is one year old, a cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years old. A sheep that is not less than six months and is so strong that appears to be one year old will suffice as Qurban.

Safety of worship and health dictates that sacrifice animal should be healthy, well-fed and has not lost any of its organs. Therefore, animals that are crippled, weak and too lean, have lost one or both of their eyes, have broken horns, bruised tongue, ears or udder and have lost most or all their teeth are not fit for Qurban. However, animals that are born cockeyed, lamed and with no horns, and those that are lightly ill and have one punched or torn ear can be sacrificed.
c. When is the time for Qurban ritual ?

Qurban (udhiyah) can be performed on the tenth, eleventh and twelfth days of Dhu al-Hijjah month of the Islamic calendar. Qurban commences after Eid prayer where it is performed and after daybreak where Eid prayer is not performed and ends at sunset on the twelfth of Dhu al-Hijjah. Slaughters can be performed during day or at night, but it is preferable to do it during day. Sacrificial slaughtering on the first day of Eid al-Adha is better. There is no specific period for nonobligatory sacrifices.
d. Can a Muslim delegate someone else for Qurban?

A Muslim can perform slaughtering himself or he can delegate someone else to do it on his behalf. Delegation is permissible in rituals performed through goods as it is the case in Qurban. A person can delegate someone else by delegating him in person or delegate someone or an organization in a distant place. Delegation could be done in verbal or via telephone, internet, fax and similar communication devices.

e. How should Qurban meat be treated ?

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised Qurban meat to be divided into three portions; one to be distributed to the poor who cannot afford it, one portion to be shared with neighbors and relatives, and the third portion to be kept for the family (Abu Dawud, Dahaya: 10). All the Qurban meat can be kept for the family if it is really poor. However, it is more appropriate to give out most of the meat in this age when the number of the needy is growing.
f. How should Qurban skin be treated ?

The skin of the Qurban should be donated to the poor or to charity. During his last Hajj, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ordered Ali (raa) to oversee slaughtering of camels so that their skins and ropes are given in sadaqah (alms) and are not given to butcher as his wage (Abu Dawud, Menasik: 20). It is clear that selling or giving Qurban skins in return for slaughter wage is not allowed.

g. Is it allowed in Islam to set an average price for each Qurban share ? 

In some regions Qurban prices are below set price and in some others they are above this figure. Does this harm validity of delegated Qurban?
What is important in “delegated Qurban job” is slaughtering a sacrifice and distributing its meat to needy people. It is allowed in Islamic law to set an “average price” for each Qurban share and collect this amount from donors.

- Prof. Vecdi Akyüz, Nurettin Yıldız, Erdal Atalay, Dr. Behlül Düzenli, Abdullah Zerrar

Back to Future 
'Idul Adha 

The Hajj and Eid al-Adha
The Boston Globe
December 12, 2008.

Yesterday marked the end of the Muslim festival Eid al-Adha, or "Feast of Sacrifice" - which also marks the end of the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. One of the pillars of Islamic faith, the Hajj must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by any Muslim who has the ability to do so. This year, nearly 3 million Muslims made the Hajj, without major incident, and are now returning to their homes across the world... 

 Your 10 Days of Dhul Hijjah 
Imam Khalid Latif

This Khutbah was delivered by Imam Khalid Latif on November 5th 2010 at the Islamic Center at NYU. In it he speaks about the importance of the first 10 days of Dhul-Hijjah, fasting on the day of 'Arafah, and how one can take advantage of both.

 The Ultimate Sacrifice Of 
Prophet Ibrahim and Prophet Ismail
An Example For All Muslim Families

Eid al-Adha - Meaning of "The Festival of Sacrifice"
By Huda, About.com Guide

What is Eid al-Adha ?

At the end of the Hajj (annual pilgrimage to Mecca), Muslims throughout the world celebrate the holiday of Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice). In 2011, Eid al-Adha will begin on or around November 6th, and will last for three days.

What does Eid al-Adha commemorate ?

During the Hajj, Muslims remember and commemorate the trials and triumphs of the Prophet Abraham. The Qur'an describes Abraham as follows:

"Surely Abraham was an example, obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the polytheists. He was grateful for Our bounties. We chose him and guided him unto a right path. We gave him good in this world, and in the next he will most surely be among the righteous." (Qur'an 16:120-121)

One of Abraham's main trials was to face the command of Allah to kill his only son. Upon hearing this command, he prepared to submit to Allah's will. When he was all prepared to do it, Allah revealed to him that his "sacrifice" had already been fulfilled. He had shown that his love for his Lord superceded all others, that he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dear to him in order to submit to God.

Why do Muslims sacrifice an animal on this day ?

During the celebration of Eid al-Adha, Muslims commemorate and remember Abraham's trials, by themselves slaughtering an animal such as a sheep, camel, or goat. This action is very often misunderstood by those outside the faith.

Allah has given us power over animals and allowed us to eat meat, but only if we pronounce His name at the solemn act of taking life. Muslims slaughter animals in the same way throughout the year. By saying the name of Allah at the time of slaughter, we are reminded that life is sacred.

The meat from the sacrifice of Eid al-Adha is mostly given away to others. One-third is eaten by immediate family and relatives, one-third is given away to friends, and one-third is donated to the poor. The act symbolizes our willingness to give up things that are of benefit to us or close to our hearts, in order to follow Allah's commands. It also symbolizes our willingness to give up some of our own bounties, in order to strengthen ties of friendship and help those who are in need. We recognize that all blessings come from Allah, and we should open our hearts and share with others.

It is very important to understand that the sacrifice itself, as practiced by Muslims, has nothing to do with atoning for our sins or using the blood to wash ourselves from sin. This is a misunderstanding by those of previous generations: "It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah; it is your piety that reaches Him." (Qur'an 22:37)

The symbolism is in the attitude - a willingness to make sacrifices in our lives in order to stay on the Straight Path. Each of us makes small sacrifices, giving up things that are fun or important to us. A true Muslim, one who submits his or herself completely to the Lord, is willing to follow Allah's commands completely and obediently. It is this strength of heart, purity in faith, and willing obedience that our Lord desires from us.

What else do Muslims do to celebrate the holiday ? 
On the first morning of Eid al-Adha, Muslims around the world attend morning prayers at their local mosques. Prayers are followed by visits with family and friends, and the exchange of greetings and gifts. At some point, members of the family will visit a local farm or otherwise will make arrangements for the slaughter of an animal. The meat is distributed during the days of the holiday or shortly thereafter.
Islam Browser's note: In Quran Prophet Abraham name stated as Ibrahim  إبراهيم  instead of Abraham 
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