Nov 9, 2012

Perluasan Madinah Expansion - The Effect Kesannya


Medina: Saudis take a bulldozer to Islam's history


Authorities are building a mosque so big it will hold 1.6m people – but are demolishing irreplaceable monuments to do it

Jerome Taylor
Friday 26 October 2012


Three of the world’s oldest mosques are about to be destroyed as Saudi Arabia embarks on a multi-billion-pound expansion of Islam’s second holiest site. Work on the Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, where the Prophet Mohamed is buried, will start once the annual Hajj pilgrimage ends next month. When complete, the development will turn the mosque into the world’s largest building, with the capacity for 1.6 million worshippers.

But concerns have been raised that the development will see key historic sites bulldozed. Anger is already growing at the kingdom’s apparent disdain for preserving the historical and archaeological heritage of the country’s holiest city, Mecca. Most of the expansion of Masjid an-Nabawi will take place to the west of the existing mosque, which holds the tombs of Islam’s founder and two of his closest companions, Abu Bakr and Umar.

Just outside the western walls of the current compound are mosques dedicated to Abu Bakr and Umar, as well as the Masjid Ghamama, built to mark the spot where the Prophet is thought to have given his first prayers for the Eid festival. The Saudis have announced no plans to preserve or move the three mosques, which have existed since the seventh century and are covered by Ottoman-era structures, or to commission archaeological digs before they are pulled down, something that has caused considerable concern among the few academics who are willing to speak out in the deeply authoritarian kingdom.

“No one denies that Medina is in need of expansion, but it’s the way the authorities are going about it which is so worrying,” says Dr Irfan al-Alawi of the Islamic Heritage Research Foundation. “There are ways they could expand which would either avoid or preserve the ancient Islamic sites but instead they want to knock it all down.” Dr Alawi has spent much of the past 10 years trying to highlight the destruction of early Islamic sites.

With cheap air travel and booming middle classes in populous Muslim countries within the developing world, both Mecca and Medina are struggling to cope with the 12 million pilgrims who visit each year – a number expected to grow to 17 million by 2025. The Saudi monarchy views itself as the sole authority to decide what should happen to the cradle of Islam. Although it has earmarked billions for an enormous expansion of both Mecca and Medina, it also sees the holy cities as lucrative for a country almost entirely reliant on its finite oil wealth.

Heritage campaigners and many locals have looked on aghast as the historic sections of Mecca and Medina have been bulldozed to make way for gleaming shopping malls, luxury hotels and enormous skyscrapers. The Washington-based Gulf Institute estimates that 95 per cent of the 1,000-year-old buildings in the two cities have been destroyed in the past 20 years.

In Mecca, the Masjid al-Haram, the holiest site in Islam and a place where all Muslims are supposed to be equal, is now overshadowed by the Jabal Omar complex, a development of skyscraper apartments, hotels and an enormous clock tower. To build it, the Saudi authorities destroyed the Ottoman era Ajyad Fortress and the hill it stood on. Other historic sites lost include the Prophet’s birthplace – now a library – and the house of his first wife, Khadijah, which was replaced with a public toilet block.

Neither the Saudi Embassy in London nor the Ministry for Foreign Affairs responded to requests for comment when The Independent contacted them this week. But the government has previously defended its expansion plans for the two holy cities as necessary. It insists it has also built large numbers of budget hotels for poorer pilgrims, though critics point out these are routinely placed many miles away from the holy sites.

Until recently, redevelopment in Medina has pressed ahead at a slightly less frenetic pace than in Mecca, although a number of early Islamic sites have still been lost. Of the seven ancient mosques built to commemorate the Battle of the Trench – a key moment in the development of Islam – only two remain. Ten years ago, a mosque which belonged to the Prophet’s grandson was dynamited. Pictures of the demolition that were secretly taken and smuggled out of the kingdom showed the religious police celebrating as the building collapsed.

The disregard for Islam’s early history is partly explained by the regime’s adoption of Wahabism, an austere and uncompromising interpretation of Islam that is vehemently opposed to anything which might encourage Muslims towards idol worship.

In most of the Muslim world, shrines have been built. Visits to graves are also commonplace. But Wahabism views such practices with disdain. The religious police go to enormous lengths to discourage people from praying at or visiting places closely connected to the time of the Prophet while powerful clerics work behind the scenes to promote the destruction of historic sites.

Dr Alawi fears that the redevelopment of the Masjid an-Nabawi is part of a wider drive to shift focus away from the place where Mohamed is buried. The spot that marks the Prophet’s tomb is covered by a famous green dome and forms the centrepiece of the current mosque. But under the new plans, it will become the east wing of a building eight times its current size with a new pulpit. There are also plans to demolish the prayer niche at the centre of mosque. The area forms part of the Riyadh al-Jannah (Garden of Paradise), a section of the mosque that the Prophet decreed especially holy..

“Their excuse is they want to make more room and create 20 spaces in a mosque that will eventually hold 1.6 million,” says Dr Alawi. “It makes no sense. What they really want is to move the focus away from where the Prophet is buried.”

A pamphlet published in 2007 by the Ministry of Islamic Affairs – and endorsed by the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdulaziz al Sheikh – called for the dome to be demolished and the graves of Mohamed, Abu Bakr and Umar to be flattened. Sheikh Ibn al-Uthaymeen, one of the 20th century’s most prolific Wahabi scholars, made similar demands.

“Muslim silence over the destruction of Mecca and Medina is both disastrous and hypocritical,” says Dr Alawi. “The recent movie about the Prophet Mohamed caused worldwide protests... and yet the destruction of the Prophet’s birthplace, where he prayed and founded Islam has been allowed to continue without any criticism.”


independent.co.uk




4 Nov 2012

Banyak tempat sejarah akan luput?

Wujud kebimbangan bahawa pembangunan semula Masjid Nabawi sebahagian usaha mengalihkan fokus daripada makam Nabi

TIGA masjid tertua di dunia sedang di ambang kemusnahan sedang kerajaan Arab Saudi memulakan projek perluasan berbilion dolar di kawasan Tanah Suci Madinah.

Kerja perluasan Masjid Nabawi, yang turut menempatkan makam Rasulullah saw, akan dimulakan bulan ini (November) selepas berakhirnya musim haji.

Apabila siap kelak, pembangunan itu akan menjadikan masjid tersebut bangunan terbesar di dunia yang dapat menampung 1.6 juta jemaah.

Bagaimanapun beberapa kebimbangan telah ditimbulkan bahawa pembangunan itu akan meluputkan sekali beberapa tempat bersejarah.

Rasa marah semakin membara terhadap kerajaan Saudi kerana tidak mengambil peduli usaha mengekalkan warisan sejarah dan arkeologi di bandar suci ini.

Sebahagian besar perluasan Masjid Nabawi akan berlaku di bahagian barat masjid itu, yang menempatkan makam dua sahabat Nabi iaitu Sayidina Abu Bakar dan Umar.

Di luar tembok sebelah barat di kawasan terdapat masjid yang dikhususkan kepada Abu Bakar dan Umar serta masjid Ghamama yang dibina sebagai tanda tempat Nabi dikatakan mendirikan solat pertama Aidiladha.

Kerajaan Arab Saudi belum mengumumkan sebarang rancangan mengekalkan atau memindahkan tiga masjid itu, yang wujud sejak abad ketujuh dengan struktur era empayar Ottoman, atau mengarahkan penggalian arkeologi sebelum ia dirobohkan.

Ini menimbulkan keprihatinan di kalangan beberapa ahli akademi.

"Tidak ada yang menafikan bahawa Madinah perlu diluaskan, tetapi cara pihak berkuasa melakukannya itulah yang membimbangkan," Kata Dr Irfan Al-Alawi daripada Yayasan Penyelidikan Warisan Islam (Islamic Heritage Research Foundation).

"Ada cara perluasan yang boleh mereka lakukan dengan mengelakkan atau mengekalkan kawasan lama Islam tetapi mereka mahu robohkan semua."

Sepanjang 10 tahun lalu, Dr Alawi telah cuba mengetengahkan soal kemusnahan kawasan awal Islam.

Dengan perbelanjaan penerbangan rendah dan berkembangnya golongan pertengahan penduduk di negara-negara Islam, Makkah dan Madinah berusaha menampung 12 juta jemaah yang berkunjung ke sana setiap tahun. Angka itu dijangka berkembang kepada 17 juta pada 2025.

Kerajaan Saudi berasa ia mempunyai kuasa sepenuhnya untuk memutuskan apa yang harus berlaku dalam tahap awal Islam.

Walaupun ia telah memperuntukkan berbilian dolar bagi perluasan di Makkah dan Madinah, ia juga melihat kededua kota suci itu sebagai menguntungkan bagi negara yang amat bergantung pada kekayaan minyaknya itu.

Para pejuang kempen warisan dan penduduk setempat tergamam melihat kawasan dan tempat bersejarah di Makkah dan Madinah dirobohkan bagi membina pusat beli-belah, hotel mewah dan bangunan pencakar langit.

Institut Teluk (Gulf Institute) yang berpangkalan di Washington menganggarkan bahawa 95 peratus daripada bangunan-bangunan berusia 1,000 tahun di dua bandar itu telah dirobohkan sepanjang 20 tahun lalu.

Di Makkah, Masjidil Haram, tempat paling suci, kini dibayangi kompleks Jabal Omar - pembangunan yang merangkumi bangunan apartmen pencakar langit, hotel dan menara jam. Untuk membinanya, pihak berkuasa Saudi telah merobohkan kubu Ajyad yang dibina semasa era Ottoman dan bukitnya sekali.

Lain-lain kawasan bersejarah yang hilang termasuk tempat lahir Nabi - yang kini menjadi perpustakaan - dan rumah isteri pertama Baginda, Sayidatina Khadijah, yang diganti dengan bangunan tandas awam.

Kerajaan Saudi sebelum ini pernah mempertahankan rancangan perluasan di dua bandar suci itu sebagai satu keperluan.

Ia menyatakan bahawa banyak hotel bajet telah dibina untuk jemaah yang kurang berada, walaupun pengkritik menyatakan bahawa ia dibina berbatu-batu jauhnya daripada kawasan Tanah Suci.

Pembangunan semula di Madinah tidak sepesat di Makkah, walaupun sebilangan kawasan awal Islam turut hilang.

Daripada tujuh masjid yang dibina sempena Perang Parit - saat penting dalam perkembangan Islam, - hanya dua yang masih ada.

Sebuah masjid milik cucu Nabi telah diledakkan 10 tahun lalu. Gambar yang merakamkan detik itu diambil secara rahsia dan diseludup keluar. Ia menunjukkan polis keagamaan merayakan bangunan yang sedang diruntuhkan.

Sikap tidak kisah terhadap sejarah awal Islam itu adalah kerana kerajaan itu mengamalkan faham Wahabi - interpretasi Islam yang tegas dan keras (tidak kompromi) yang menentang apa jua yang mungkin boleh menggalakkan kecenderungan terhadap sembahan berhala.

Di banyak tempat dalam Dunia Islam, banyak makam dibina. Berkunjung ke tanah perkuburan juga perkara biasa. Tetapi fahaman Wahabi melihat amalan itu sebagai satu perbuatan hina.

Polis keagamaan berusaha melarang penganut Islam daripada bersembahyang atau berkunjung ke tempat-tempat yang dikaitkan dengan zaman Nabi sementara pemimpin agama bekerja keras ke arah menghapuskan kawasan-kawasan bersejarah.

Dr Alawi bimbang bahawa pembangunan semula Masjid Nabawi adalah sebahagian daripada usaha lebih luas mengalihkan fokus daripada makam Nabi. Tempat makam Nabi ditandai dengan kubah hijau dan berada di tengah-tengah masjid itu.

Tetapi di bawah perancangan baru, ia akan terletak di bahagian sebelah kiri bangunan yang lapan kali lebih luas daripada saiz sekarang ini dengan mimbar baru.

Terdapat juga rancangan merobohkan relung solat di tengah masjid itu. Kawasan itu membentuk sebahagian daripada Riyadul-Jannah (Taman Syurga) - satu kawasan masjid yang ditetapkan Rasulullah sebagai suci.

"Alasan mereka ialah mereka mahu menyediakan ruang lebih luas dan mewujudkan 20 ruang dalam masjid itu yang mampu menampung 1.6 juta jemaah," kata Dr Alawi.

"Ia tidak masuk di akal. Apa yang mereka sebenarnya mahukan ialah memindahkah fokus jauh daripada makam Nabi."

Satu risalah yang diterbitkan dalam 2007 oleh Kementerian Ehwal Islam, yang disokong oleh Mufti Besar Arab Saudi, Abdulaziz al Sheikh, menyeru supaya kubah dirobohkan dan makam Nabi, Sayidina Abu Bakar dan Umar diratakan. Sheikh Ibn al-Uthaymeen, salah seorang daripada cendekiawan terkenal Wahabi abad ke-20 - membuat seruan serupa.

"Menutup mulut terhadap pemusnahan (tempat bersejarah) Makkah dan Madinah adalah satu bencana dan satu kepura-puraan," kata Dr Alawi.

"Filem mengenai Nabi Muhammad saw baru-baru ini menarik bantahan seluruh dunia tetapi pemusnahan tempat lahir Nabi, tempat baginda beribadah dan mengasaskan Islam, dibiarkan berterusan tanpa sebarang kritikan," ujar beliau.

Nota: Rencana di atas dipetik daripada 'The Independent'.

cyberita.asia1.com.sg

والله أعلم بالصواب

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Fatwa

Binaan Di Atas Tanah Perkuburan

Tarikh Keputusan: 25 May, 2010

Huraian Tajuk/Isu:

Membina bangunan/ binaan di atas tanah perkuburan Islam.

Keputusan:

Jawatankuasa Fatwa Negeri Kedah yang bermesyuarat pada 25 Mei 2010 telah memutuskan bahawa tetap berpegang dengan keputusan yang telah dibuat pada 26 Mei 1976 berkaitan hukum membuat binaan di atas kubur iaitu:-
i) Makruh hukumnya dibuat binaan di dalam atau di atas kubur yang tanah kubur itu dimiliki oleh orang yang membuat binaan tersebut. Manakala hukumnya harus jika membuat binaan yang bertujuan menyelamatkan kubur itu dari digali atau dikorek oleh binatang buas atau diruntuh oleh banjir atau seumpamanya.

ii) Haram hukumnya dibuat binaan di dalam atau di atas kubur apa jua jenis dan bentuk binaan yang kekal selepas hancur mayat dengan tiada apa-apa tujuan seperti yang tersebut di atas sekiranya kubur itu di dalam tanah yang disediakan untuk perkuburan atau yang diwakaf untuk perkuburan dan wajib dirobohkan kerana binaan kekal wujudnya selepas hancur mayat ia menghalang orang-orang Islam daripada menggunakan tempat perkuburan itu dengan tiada apa-apa sebab yang dilulusakan oleh syarak dan meruntuhkan itu hendaklah dengan kebenaran kadi atau kebenaran Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Kedah kerana dikhuatiri berlaku perbalahan, pergaduhan dan sebagainya. Batu-batu dan perkakas-perkakas binaan menjadi hak milik waris-warisnya dan dipulangkan kepada mereka. Jika tiada waris atau waris enggan mengambilnya maka menjadi hak kepada baitulmal.
Wallahua'alam

Status Penwartaan: Tidak Diwartakan
e-fatwa.gov.my

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Building Structures over Graves

Posted by fatwa on Mar 20, 2012 in Featured, Jana'iz and Janazah 



Question:

Is it allowed to make the buildings on the buried place of Auliya. Need some proof from Quraan, Imams, or Sahabah.

Answer:

Wa alaykum salam wa rahmatuLlahi wa barakatuHu,

In Sahih Muslim v. 7, p. 1178, the Prophet Muhammad (sallaAllahu alayhie wa sallam), “Prohibited…building upon them [graves]….”

In Sharh Sahih Muslim v. 7, p. 1179 and Majmu’ v. 5, p. 296, Imam Nawawi discussed the issue. Without any difference of opinion, building upon graves is makruh. The Shafi’is do not differentiate regarding what is built over the grave, be it a house or a dome or any other structure. Also, the issue of if a grave-site is privately owned or provided for the public’s use is considered. If the latter, then it is unlawful, and the grave should be demolished; while if the grave-site is private, then it is makruh and demolishing it is not demanded from the owner.

The occupant of the grave being a pious personality does not necessarily change the ruling. In fact, in Fayd al-Qadir v. 6, p. 402, Hafiz Munawi and Ibn Hajar in his Fatawa v. 2, p. 25, related that some of the Shafiyyah ruled that the structures built over Imam Shafi’s grave and the other graves in Qarafah (Egypt) must be demolished, pursuant to the mentioned opinion.

The initiative to demolish the structures built over graves found in a public graveyard would also not be undertaken by individuals, but rather at the level of the wulat al-amr. In Kitab al-Umm (as related by Imam Nawawi, see previous reference), Imam Shafi’i mentioned that the Imams of Makkah commanded that what was built as such be leveled, and did so. In his Fatawa v. 2, p. 25, Ibn Hajar said,

ووجب على ولاة الأمر هدم الأبنية التي في المقابر المسبلة

“Demolishing the structures which are in the public graveyards is obligatory on the wulat al-amr [those in charge, the government].”

And Allah knows best.

Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept.
 shafiifiqh.com


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 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Fatwa Pilihan

HUKUM MENDIRIKAN ATAP DI ATAS KUBUR
Fatwa siri : 6/1995

Soalan:
Apakah hukum mendirikan atau membuat atap di atas kubur?

Jawapan:



Hukum mendirikan atap di atas kubur itu huraiannya adalah seperti berikut:

1.Jika kuburnya itu di atas tanah milik khas baginya adalah makruh sahaja membina sebarang binaan di atasnya.

2.Jika kuburnya itu di perkuburan awam atau disebut juga kubur Musabbalah adalah haram didirikan sebarang binaan di atasnya. Maksud sebarang binaan itu sama ada berupa atap, kubah, rumah, masjid atau lainnya seperti tambak (atau dilingkungi dengan simin-simin di sekeliling kubur itu).

Hukum haram mendirikan binaan yang tersebut di atas adalah berdasarkan kepada hadits Muslim yang berbunyi:


(رواه مسلم)

Maksudnya: Rasulullah Shallâllahu ‘alaihi wasallam menegah daripada mengkapurkan kubur dan duduk di atasnya dan mendirikan binaan di atasnya.
(Hadits riwayat Muslim)

Larangan atau tegahan ini ialah kerana ia akan menyempitkan kawasan perkuburan mayat muslimin yang lain yang juga berhak menggunakan kubur itu dan lagi tiada sebarang faedah atau mashlahat atau tujuan sebenar di sisi syara‘. Demikian pendapat al-Imam al-Azra‘i yang lahir pada 708 Hijrah iaitu seorang ulama besar di dalam Mazhab asy-Syafi‘e. Hal ini diperkuatkan dengan perbuatan Sayyidina ‘Umar Ibnu al-Khaththab Radhiallâhu ‘anhu iaitu selepas baginda melihat satu kubur di bina kubah di atasnya, maka baginda merobohkannya, katanya: Biar mayat itu dilindungi oleh amal ibadatnya sendiri.

Pengharaman binaan tersebut bukan sahaja di sebelah atas kubur, bahkan juga sebelah bawahnya, maka wajiblah ke atas pemerintah merobohkan sebarang binaan yang terdapat diperkuburan awam yang diwakafkan kepada orang ramai untuk mengkebumikan mayat-mayat mereka di situ. Menurut setengah ulama pengharaman ini tidak termasuk kubur para nabi, syuhadâ‘, orang-orang salih dan orang-orang seumpama mereka.

Juga termasuk di dalam pengharaman tersebut ialah membina sebarang binaan di kawasan tepi-tepi kubur atau pinggirnya (harîm kubur), kerana tujuan harîm sesuatu tempat itu bagi kesempurnaan dan kemudahan menggunakan tempat itu, seperti yang telah difatwakan oleh al-Marhum Pehin Datu Seri Maharaja Datu Utama Dr. Awang Haji Ismail bin Omar Abul Aziz bekas Mufti Kerajaan Brunei Darussalam.

Sementara itu jika kiranya kubur-kubur itu ada di kaki bukit atau curam ditakuti tanah-tanah itu runtuh, maka boleh diadakan sekatan tembok umpamanya bagi menghalang dari runtuh dan itu juga bererti menjaga mashlahat tanah-tanah kubur itu.

Mengenai dengan meletakkan nisan di atas kepala orang mati dalam kubur itu adalah sunat, kerana nisan itu telah menjadi suatu hak yang berhubung dengan orang mati dalam kubur itu kerana Nabi Shallâllahu ‘alaihi wasallam telah meletakkan dekat kepala sahabat ‘Utsman Radhiallâhu ‘anhu sekeping batu besar dan sabdanya:


(رواه أبو داود)

Maksudnya: Saya hendak ketahui akan kubur saudara saya (saudara susuan) dengan batu besar itu, supaya dapat menanam kerabat saya yang mati dekat kubur Othman bin Maz'un itu.
(Hadits riwayat Abu Daud)

Tujuan nisan itu adalah sebagai tanda kepada kubur seseorang bagi memudahkan kaum keluarga si mati untuk menziarahinya dan bagi memudahkan untuk dikebumikan keluarganya yang meninggal dunia selepasnya supaya berhampiran dengan kubur si mati itu. Ini kerana disunatkan supaya dikebumikan keluarga seseorang itu di tempat yang sama untuk kemudahan membuat ziarah bagi mereka yang masih hidup.

والله أعلم بالصواب

Dimuat turun dalam bentuk pdf  mufti.gov.bn

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Fatwa no  110061
The green dome in Madeenah: its history and the ruling on its construction and on leaving it as it is

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

The history of the green dome

The dome over the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) dates back to the seventh century AH. It was built during the reign of Sultan Qalawoon, and at first it was the colour of wood, then it became white, then blue, then green, and it has remained green until the present.

Professor ‘Ali Haafiz (may Allaah preserve him) said:

There was no dome over the sacred chamber. There was in the roof of the mosque above the chamber a waist-high enclosure of brick to distinguish the location of the chamber from the rest of the mosque’s roof.

Sultaan Qalawoon al-Saalihi was the first one to build a dome over the chamber. He did that in 678 AH. It was square at the bottom and octagonal at the top, made of wood, and built on top of the pillars that surrounded the chamber. Planks of wood were nailed to it, over which plates of lead were placed, and the brick enclosure was replaced with one made of wood.

The dome was refurbished at the time of al-Naasir Hasan ibn Muhammad Qalawoon, then the leaden plates slipped, but they were fixed and refurbished at the time of al-Ashraf Sha’baan ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad in 765 AH. It fell into disrepair and was renovated at the time of Sultaan Qayit Bey in 881 AH.

The chamber and dome were burned in the fire that swept through the Prophet’s mosque in 886 AH. During the reign of Sultaan Qayit Bey the dome was rebuilt, in 887 AH, and strong pillars to support it were built in the floor of the mosque, and they were built of bricks to the correct height. After the dome had been built in the manner described above, cracks appeared in its upper part. When it proved impossible to refurbish it, the Sultaan Qayit Bey ordered that the upper part be demolished and rebuilt strongly using white plaster. So it was built solidly in 892 AH.

In 1253 AH, an order was issued by the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-Hameed to paint the dome green. He was the first one to colour it green, and the colour has been renewed whenever necessary until the present.

It became known as the green dome after it was painted green. It was previously known as the white dome or the fragrant dome or the blue dome. End quote.

Fusool min Tareekh al-Madeenah al-Munawwarah by ‘Ali Haafiz (p. 127, 128).

Secondly:

Rulings thereon

The scholars, both in the past and in modern times, criticized the building of this dome and its being given a colour. All of that is because of what they know of sharee’ah closing many doors for fear of falling into shirk.

These scholars include the following:

1 – al-San’aani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Ta-theer al-I’tiqaad:

If you say: A great dome has been built over the grave of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), costing a great deal of money, I say: This is in fact great ignorance of the situation, because this dome was not built by him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or by his Sahaabah or by those who followed them, or by those who followed the Taabi’een, or by the scholars and imams of the ummah. Rather this dome was built over his grave (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the orders of one of the later kings of Egypt, namely the Sultan Qalawoon al-Saalihi who is known as King Mansoor, in 678 AH, and was mentioned in Tahqeeq al-Nasrah bi Talkhees Ma’aalim Dar al-Hijrah. These are things that were done on the orders of the state and not on the basis of shar’i evidence. End quote.

2 – The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas were asked:

There are those who take the building of the green dome over the Prophet’s grave in the Prophet’s Mosque as evidence that it is permissible to build domes over other graves, such as those of the righteous and others. Is this argument correct or what should our response to them be?

They replied:

It is not correct to quote the fact that people built a dome over the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as evidence that it is permissible to build domes over the graves of the righteous dead and others, because those people’s building a dome over his grave (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was haraam and those who did it sinned thereby, because they went against what is proven in a report from Abu’l-Hayaaj al-Asadi who said: ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) said to me: Shall I not send you on the same mission as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent me? Do not leave any image without erasing it or any high grave without levelling it.

And it was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade plastering over graves, or sitting on them or building over them. Both reports were narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh. So it is not correct for anyone to quote the haraam action of some people as evidence that it is permissible to do similar haraam actions, because it is not permissible to go against the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by citing the words or actions of anyone else. And because he is the one who conveyed the command from Allaah, and he is the one who is to be obeyed, and we must beware of going against his commands, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)” [al-Hashr 59:7].

And there are other verses which enjoin obedience to Allaah and to His Messenger. And because building up graves and erecting domes over them are means that lead to associating their occupants with Allaah, and the means that lead to shirk must be blocked. End quote.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Qa’ood.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (9/83, 84)

3 – The scholars of the Standing Committee also said:

There is no proof in the fact that a dome was set up over the Prophet’s grave for those who take it as an excuse for building domes of the graves of the awliya’ (“saints”) and righteous people, because the building of a dome over his grave was not done on his instructions and was not done by any of his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them), or by the Taabi’een, or by any of the imams of guidance in the early generations whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) testified were good. Rather it was done by people of bid’ah (innovation). It was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” And it was proven that ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said to Abu’l-Hayaaj: Shall I not send you on the same mission as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent me? Do not leave any image without erasing it or any high grave without levelling it. Narrated by Muslim. As it is not proven that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) built a dome over his grave, and it is not proven from any of the leading imams; rather what is proven shows that to be an invalid action, and no Muslim should feel any attachment to the action of innovators who built a dome over the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). End quote.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azzez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Qa’ood

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (2/264, 265).

4 – Shaykh Shams al-Deen al-Afghaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

al-‘Allaamah al-Khajandi (1379 AH) said, discussing the history of the green dome that was built over the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and explaining that it is an innovation that was done by some sultans and ignorant persons who erred and made a mistake, and that it is contrary to the clear saheeh ahaadeeth and reflects ignorance of the Sunnah, and that they went to extremes and imitated the Christians who are confused and misguided:

It should be noted that until the year 678 AH, there was no dome over the chamber which contains the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), rather it was built by the king al-Zaahir al-Mansoor Qalawoon al-Saalihi in that year (678 AH), when this dome was built.

I say: He did that because he had seen in Egypt and Syria the adorned churches of the Christians, so he imitated them out of ignorance of the command and Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as al-Waleed imitated them by adorning the mosque, as was mentioned in Wafa’ al-Wafa’.

It should be noted that undoubtedly this action of Qalawoon was contrary to the saheeh ahaadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but ignorance is a great calamity and exaggeration in love and veneration is a real disaster, and imitation of foreigners is a fatal disease. We seek refuge with Allaah from ignorance and exaggeration and imitation of foreigners. End quote.

Juhood ‘Ulama’ al-Hanafiyyah fi Ibtaal ‘Aqaa’id al-Qubooriyyah (3/1660-1662).

Thirdly:

The reason why it has not been demolished:

The scholars have explained the shar’i rulings concerning the building of this dome and its obvious effects on the followers of bid’ah’ who have developed an attachment to this structure and its colour, and they praise and venerate it a great deal in their poetry and writings. Now it is up to the authorities to implement these fatwas, and this is nothing to do with the scholars.

The reason why it is not demolished is so as to ward off fitnah and for fear that it may lead to chaos among the ordinary people and the ignorant. Unfortunately the ordinary people have only reached this level of veneration towards this dome because of the leadership of misguided scholars and imams of innovation. They are the ones who incite the ordinary people against the land of the Two Holy Sanctuaries and its ‘aqeedah and its manhaj. They are very upset about many actions that are in accordance with sharee’ah in our view and contrary to innovation in their view.

Whatever the case, the shar’i ruling is quite clear, and the fact that this dome has not been demolished does not mean that it is permissible to build it or any dome over any grave, no matter what grave it is.

Shaykh Saalih al-‘Usaymi (may Allaah preserve him) said:

The fact that this dome has remained for eight centuries does not mean that it has become permissible, and being silent about it does not indicate approval of it or that it is permissible. Rather the Muslim authorities should remove it and put it back as it was at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). They should remove the dome and the adornments and engravings that are found in the mosques, above all the Prophet’s Mosque, so long as that will not lead to an even greater fitnah. If it would lead to an even greater fitnah, then the ruler should postpone the matter until he finds an opportunity for that. End quote.

Bida’ al-Quboor, Anwaa’uha wa ahkaamuha (p. 253).

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A

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Why anything done by the government of Arab Saudi must relate to Wahabi ?
We as the follower of Mazhab Shafi'i never relate any acts by any other government to Imam Syafi'i. We should not spread the hate on wahabi because the wahabi (as the label given ) also our muslim brothers.
We have to separate the political interest of the government of Arab Saudi with our muslim brothers there.

Of course many say have been thrown by some of them to us as the follower of Imam Syafi'i but we still have to handle them in Islamic way as taught by Nabi Muhammad s.a.w.

- my 2 sen view

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