Dec 31, 2012

Scientific Implications of Surah Al Baqarah سورة البقرة by Prof Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar

"….is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest.

"….is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest. And if it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices it..."
(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow): 265)

By: Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar

This verse appears towards the end of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow), which was revealed in Madinah and has 286 verses. It is the longest Surah in the Qur'an and gets its name from the miraculous story mentioned in it about a man from the Israelites was murdered in the days of Musa (AS) and the identity of his murderer was unknown.  Thus Allah (SWT) ordered Musa (AS) to order his people to slaughter a cow and to strike the dead man with a part of it; he then came back to life by Allah's will and told them the identify of his murderer. Truth was able to prevail as a result of this miracle and it was a manifestation of Allah’s (SWT) power to resurrect the dead.

Surat Al-Baqarah deals with the Jews and Christians at length; this subject matter covers more than one third of the Surah.  The Surah concludes with an affirmation of the reality of faith and with a supplication to Allah that touches the heart and mind.  The most significant facts mentioned in the Surah can be summarized as follows:

Personal characteristics of a virtuous believer mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah:

1.     Patience in suffering and adversity;
2.     Fulfilling covenants and promises;
3.     Courage and intrepidity in seeking martyrdom in the cause of Allah;
4.     Boldness in upholding justice, declaring one's opinion and refraining from suppressing testimony;
5.     Bounty, generosity and spending money in the cause of Allah;
6.     Striving to do good deeds, to say kind words and to forgive others;
7.     Showing respects to one's parents and kindness towards kin, orphans, the poor and to all people, and helping the needy without humiliating them or harming.
8.     Avoiding all types of ill-gotten gain.


Tenets of faith in Surat Al-Baqarah:

  1. Surat Al-Baqarah provides details of the rules governing the Muslim family from marriage, divorce, weaning children, the iddat (waiting) period for women after divorce or the death of their spouse, etc. Men are also ordered to refrain from having sexual intercourse with their wives during their menstrual cycles and marriage with polytheists is forbidden until they believe.
  2. This Surah lists the foods that are forbidden, such as dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine and any animals that have not been slaughtered in the name of Allah. It is not sinful, however, if one consumes these foods through extreme necessity.  Furthermore, the surah prohibits both intoxicants and gambling.
  3. Retribution (qisas) is the rule stipulated in the case of murder.
  4. The Surah encourages will writing and prohibited concealment or falsification of a will.
  5. It prohibits the unlawful usurpation of other people’s property or possessions.
  6. It sets checks for debt transactions.
  7. Riba is prohibited outright.  ( Riba: is that amount of money added to the original sum or balance of money that was borrowed, in other words; interest).
  8. It encourages people to treat orphans well and sets up checks concerning money spent in the cause of Allah.
  9. It prohibits the denial of undeniable religious truths.

Stories in Surat Al-Baqarah:

Many of Allah's prophets and messengers are mentioned in this Surah and reference is also made to a number of events that provide useful allegories, such as the following:

  1. The story of Adam and Hawa’ (Eve).
  2. The story of the people of Israel and the Pharaoh, covering their exodus from Egypt with Musa (AS) who led them across the sea, and how water sprung out of the earth for their consumption and how they were then disobedient after receiving all these blessings from Allah and reverted to worshipping a calf.  There is also reference to the story of how Allah transformed those who broke the rules of the Sabbath into monkeys.  The Surah also refers to their denial of Allah’s signs and verses, their unjust slaying of prophets, distortion of the Torah, their disobedience to Allah's commands and transgression of the limits set by Him. Moreover, it shows how Allah raised above them (the towering height) of Mount (Sinai) to threaten and frighten them, as well as their story with the murdered person and Allah's order to them to slaughter a cow and to use its parts to hit the murdered person so that Allah (SWT) would resurrect him and let him utter his murderer's name then die again and their story with their king Talut (Saul) and with Galut (Goliath) and Dawud (AS) “David”.
  3. The story of prophets sent to the people of Israel such as Dawud (AS) and Solaiman (AS).
  4. The story of Ibrahim (AS) and his son Isma'il (AS), who raised the foundations of the Ka’ba, and their prayer to Allah (SWT) to send the final prophet to Makkah and the debate between Ibrahim (AS) and King Nimrod who was the first man to falsely claim divinity to himself.
  5. The story of Yaqub (AS).
  6. The changing of the Qibla (direction for prayer) from Jerusalem to Makkah.
  7. The story of Isa (Jesus) (AS).
  8. The story of the Uzair (Ezra) who went to Jerusalem after it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar; the verse states what can be translated as,* “…He said: “Oh! How will Allah ever bring this town back to life after its death?” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)?” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day”. He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh”. When this was clearly shown to him, he said, "I know (now) that Allah is Able to do all things.”” *
( Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow): 259)

Signs of Creation in Surat Al-Baqarah:
Surat Al-Baqarah mentions many of signs of creation that can be summarized as follows:

  1. The distinction between the different types of light, each with its own characteristics and the contrast between darkness and light. These are scientific realities that have only been recently discovered.
  2. The fact that hearing precedes sight in human development.  It has been scientifically proven that in the stages of the creation of a human being, hearing is developed before sight.
  3. The description of how heavy outpours of rain are consistently accompanied by darkness, thunder and lightning.
  4. Reference to the consecutive stages in the Earth’s preparation to receive human life, from leveling the Earth’s surface, the building the heavens surrounding it, rain descending on the Earth, fruits grew on the Earth for our sustenance, revival of the earth after it had been barren and the scattering of all kinds of animals throughout the earth.
  5. The miracle of the sea splitting for Musa (AS), was also mentioned, saving him and those who were with him from the Pharaoh and his soldiers, as well as of the gushing forth of twelve springs with one strike of Musa’s (AS) staff.  These wells still exist until today along a single fault in the Earth’s crust in the eastern area of the Suez Peninsula.
  6. Reference to psychological elements such as fear, suspicion and doubt, all of which have shown by studies in the field of psychology to be scientific truths that were unknown at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an.
    The hardheartedness of the Jews is mentioned and is compared to the hardness of rocks; their hearts are considered harder than rocks as there are some rocks which soften with the rivers that flows over them, there are some that split and water flows out of them and others that sink for fear of Allah (SWT).
  7. Reference to the true East and West of the Earth, giving an indication of the Earth being the centre of the universe.  This is a scientific fact that has yet to be accepted by secular science.
  8. Reference to the creation of the Heavens and Earth, the alternation of night and day and the passage of ships through the sea for the benefit of mankind; all of this is part of Allah’s supreme Dominion.
  9. Reference to the direction of the winds and the clouds which trail between the heavens and the earth in subjugation.  These are scientific truths that have only been slightly understood in the latter decades of the twentieth century.
  10. New moons are signs to mark appointed times and dates in the lives of people and for the pilgrimage.
  11. Reference to women's menstrual periods and advising men to refrain from sexual intercourse with women during menstruation due to the harm and damage that can be inflicted on women as a consequence.  Medical studies have indeed confirmed this fact.
  12. Emphasizing the dangers of intoxicants and gambling which outweigh any benefit that may be reaped from them.
  13. Mentioning the scientific truth that an orchard on a flat surface, which is more elevated than what surrounds it, if subjected to heavy rain, will bear twice the amount of fruit.  This is because the likelihood of it being flooded with heavy rain is non-existent as the water quickly drains away from the soil after it has taken what it requires; this is as it is elevated above the valleys surrounding it. If, however, it does not receive heavy rain but light moisture (dew or light drizzles of rain) it is sufficient to water the plants and to produce plentiful fruit.
The point here is that such a garden on a height, thrives, flourishes, bears fruit and produces generously whether or not it receives heavy rain.

Surat Al-Baqarah describes those who spend for the sake of Allah and who are righteous. Allah makes what they have spent for Him in His cause thrive and grow (irrespective of whether the amount spent is large or small); the rewards of spending for the sake of Allah are compared to the produce of the garden on a height thrives and grows whether or not it receives heavy rain.
Each of the above mentioned scientific matters requires separate analysis; therefore, I will only focus my analysis in this article on the last point concerning the description of the garden on a height.  Before starting, we shall have a quick look at the interpretation of this noble verse by old and contemporary scholars.


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Dr. Zaghloul Ragheb Mohamed El-Naggar Professor of Geology, Head, Committee on Scientific Nations in the Glorious Qur'an & Purity Sunnah Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo, Egypt.

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Recitation of Surah Al Baqarah by
Sheikh Mishary Rashid Al-Afasy


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Profile Of The Surah




Juz : 1
Surah No. :2
Surah:AL-BAQARAH
No. of Verses: 286

AL-BAQARAH

Name

Why the name AL-BAQARAH ?

AL-BAQARAH (the Cow) has been so named from the story of the Cow occurring in this Surah (vv. 67-73). It has not, however, been used as a title to indicate the subject of the Surah. It will, therefore, be as wrong to translate the name Al-Baqarah into "The Cow" or "The Heifer" as to translate any English name, say Baker, Rice, Wolf etc., into their equivalents in other languages or vice versa, because this would imply that the Surah dealt with the subject of "The Cow". Many more Surahs of the Quran have been named in the same way because no comprehensive words exist in Arabic (in spite of its richness) to denote the wide scope of the subject discussed in them. As a matter of fact all human languages suffer from the same limitation.


Sequence

Though it is a Madani Surah, it follows naturally a Makki Surah Al- Fatihah, which ended with the prayer :"Show us the straight way". It begins with the answer to that prayer, "This is the Book (that) . . . is guidance. . ."

The greater part of Al-Baqarah was revealed during the first two years of the Holy Prophet's life at Al-Madinah. The smaller part which was revealed at a later period has been included in this Surah because its contents are closely related to those dealt with in this Surah. For instance, the verses prohibiting interest were revealed during the last period of the Holy prophet's life but have been inserted in this Surah. For the same reason, the last verses (284-286) of this Surah which were revealed at Makkah before the migration of the Holy Prophet to AI-Madinah have also been included in it.


Historical Background

In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:

At Makkah the Quran generally addressed the mushrik Quraish who were ignorant of Islam, but at Al- Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of the Unity of Allah, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by Allah to their Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him), and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un- Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this : they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their worst to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken Allah and begun to serve mammon. So much so that they had even given up their original name "Muslim" and adopted the name "Jew" instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel.

This was their religious condition when the Holy Prophet went to Al-Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made; side by side with this the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.

At Makkah Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Al-Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the Ansar (local supporters), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Al- Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.

After the migration to Al-Madinah, the struggle between Islam and un-Islam had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Al- Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city state. Here it became a struggle for the' survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non- Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah :-

The Community should work with the utmost zeal to propagate its ideology and win over to its side the greatest possible number of people.

It should so expose its opponents as to leave no room for doubt in the mind of any sensible person that they were adhering to an absolutely wrong position.

It should infuse in it's members (the majority of whom were homeless and indigent and surrounded on all sides by enemies) that courage and fortitude which is so indispensable to their very existence in the adverse circumstances in which they were struggling and to prepare them to face these boldly.

It should also keep them ready and prepared to meet any armed menace, which might come from any side to suppress and crush their ideology, and to oppose it tooth and nail without minding the overwhelming numerical strength and the material resources of its enemies

It should also create in them that courage which is needed for the eradication of evil ways and for the establishment of the Islamic Way instead. That is why Allah has revealed in this Surah such instructions as may help achieve all the above mentioned objects.

During this period, a new type of "Muslims," munafiqin (hypocrites), had begun to appear. Though signs of duplicity had been noticed during the last days at Makkah, they took a different shape at Al-Madinah. At Makkah there were some people who professed Islam to be true but were not prepared to abide by the consequences of this profession and to sacrifice their worldly interests and relations and bear the afflictions which inevitably follow the acceptance of this creed. But at Al-Madinah different kinds of munafiqin (hypocrites) began to appear. There were some who had entered the Islamic fold merely to harm it from within. There were others who were surrounded by Muslims and, therefore, had become "Muslims" to safeguard their worldly interests. They, therefore, continued to have relations with the enemies so that if the latter became successful, their interests should remain secure. There were still others who had no strong conviction of the truth of Islam but had embraced it along with their clans. Lastly, there were those who were intellectually convinced of the truth of Islam but did not have enough moral courage to give up their former traditions, superstitions and personal ambitions and live up to the Islamic moral standards and make sacrifice in its way.

At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. Allah has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, Allah sent detailed instructions about them.


Theme: Guidance

This Surah is an invitation to the Divine Guidance and all the stories, incidents etc., revolve round this central theme. As this Surah has particularly been addressed to the Jews, many historical events have been cited from their own traditions to admonish and advise them that their own good lies in accepting the Guidance revealed to the Holy Prophet. They should, therefore, be the first to accept it because it was basically]y the same that was revealed to Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him).

Topics and their Interconnection

These introductory verses declare the Quran to be the Book of Guidance : enunciate the articles of the Faith -- belief in Allah, Prophethood and Life-after-death; divide mankind into three main groups with regard to its acceptance or rejection -- Believers, disbelievers and hypocrites. 1 - 20

Allah invites mankind to accept the Guidance voluntarily and to submit to Him, the Lord and the Creator of the Universe and to believe in the Quran, His Guidance, and in the Life-after-death. 21 - 29

The story of the appointment of Adam as Allah's Vicegerent on Earth, of his life in the Garden, of his falling a prey to the temptations of Satan, of his repentance and its acceptance, has been related to show to mankind (Adam's offspring), that the only right thing for them is to accept and follow the Guidance. This story also shows that the Guidance of Islam is the same that was given to Adam and that it is the original religion of mankind. 30 - 39

In this portion invitation to the Guidance has particularly been extended to the children of Israel and their past and present attitude has been criticised to show that the cause of their degradation was their deviation from the Guidance. 40 - 120

The Jews have been exhorted to follow Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) who had come with the same Guidance and who was a descendant and follower of Prophet Abraham whom they highly honoured as their ancestor, and professed to follow as a prophet. The story of the building of the Ka`abah by him has been mentioned because it was going to be made the qiblah of the Muslim Community. 121 - 141

In this portion, the declaration of the change of qiblah from the Temple (Jerusalem) to the Ka`abah (Makkah) has been made as a symbol of the change of leadership from the children of Israel to the Muslim Community, which has also been fore-warned to guard against those transgressions against the Guidance that had led to the deposition of the Jews. 142 - 152

In this portion practical measures have been prescribed to enable the Muslims to discharge the heavy responsibilities of the leadership that had been entrusted to them for the promulgation of Guidance. Salat, Fast, Zakat, Haj and Jihad have been prescribed for the moral training of the Ummat. The Believers have been exhorted to obey authority, to be just, to fulfill pledges, to observe treaties, to spend wealth etc., in the way of Allah. Laws, rules and regulations have been laid down for their organisation, cohesion and conduct of day-to-day life and for the solution of social, economic, political and international problems; on the other hand, drinking, gambling, lending money on interest etc., have been prohibited to keep the Ummat safe from disintegration. In between these, the basic articles of the Faith have been reiterated at suitable places, for these alone can enable and support one to stick to the Guidance. 153 - 251

These verses serve as an introduction to the prohibition of lending money on interest. The true conception of Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death has been emphasised to keep alive the sense of accountability. The stories of Prophet Abraham (Allah's peace be upon him) and of the one who woke up after a sleep of hundred years have been related to show that Allah is All-Powerful and is able to raise the dead and call them to account. The Believers, therefore, should keep this fact in view and refrain from taking interest on money. 252 - 260

The theme of 153 - 251 has been resumed and the Believers have been exhorted to spend in the way of Allah in order to please Him alone. In contrast to this, they have been warned against the evils of lending money on interest. Instructions have also been given for the honest conduct of day-to-day business transactions. 261 - 283

The basic articles of the Faith have been recapitulated here at the end of the Surah, just as they were enunciated at its beginning. Then the Surah ends with a prayer which the Muslim Community needed very much at that time when they were encountering untold hardships in the propagation of the Guidance. 284 - 286
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