Jan 12, 2013


Ya Allah  give us the strength
to unite for us to defend Your name

Mohd Aizam Bin Mas‟od
Aqidah Section, Research Department.

The issue of demanding to use the word ‘Allah’ by the Christians in this country should to be handled wisely. The academic discussions to understand the hidden agenda behind the claim should be thoroughly studied by all parties. ‘Allah’ is a sacred word that symbolises the Muslims and they have to defend the word so that it will not deviate from its true meaning. It is the obligation of all Muslims to protect the divinity of Islam.
On 31st December 2007, the editor of Herald-The Catholic Weekly, Father Lawrence Andrew said that the Home Ministry (KDN) has renewed the permit of the publication without banning the use of the word “Allah”. However, the government reiterated that the ban still stays. On 3rd January 2008, the Cabinet announced that the ban on all religions, except Islam, to use the word “Allah” in their publication remains.
Previously, the Cabinet had decided on the same resolution in a meeting on 18th October and 1st November 2006. On 19th March 2008, Catholic Church applied to the Supreme Court to perform a judicial review for the ban of using the word “Allah”. On 5th May 2008, the Supreme Court (the Appeal and Special Power Section) decided to allow the leave application by the Catholic Church to revise (the ruling) to use the word “Allah” in their publication Herald-The Catholic Weekly. This article is written as a framework to reject the use of the word “Allah” by the Christians.
The Reasons Given By the Catholic Church to Use the Word “Allah”
In The Sun newspaper dated 24th December 2007, there was a report entitled „Church leaders explain use of „Allah‟. There are five main reasons given by the report as to why the Catholic Church wishes to continue using the word “Allah” in their publication. The reasons are as follows:
a) The claim that they are following the Bible. The Bible in the Malay language uses the word “Allah” as a translation to “God” and “God” for the term “Lord”.
b) The claim that as early as the 19th century, the Catholics in Malaya had owned prayer books in Malay language and the word “Allah” has been used in reference to God. The Maltese Catholic had also used the word “Allah” to refer to God, similarly the Christians in Indonesia, Pakistan and the West Asia.
c) The claim that suggests even the Quranic verses suggested that the non-Muslims have been using “Allah”.
d) The claim that the segments (translation) in the Malay language are designed to meet the needs of ethnic and linguistic diversity that exists in Malaysia, which similarly exists in the population of Catholics in Malaysia.
e) The claim that the government does not have any right to interfere into the internal affairs of the church as ruled by Item 11(3)A of the Federal Constitution.

The Arguments Given by the Catholic Church
First Reason: The claim that they are following the Bible. The Bible in the Malay language uses the word “Allah” as the translation of “God” and “God” for the word “Lord”.
Rejection Arguments:
a) “Allah” is a specific name from an Arabic word and it cannot be used in other forms or any other meanings. According to Arabic grammar, the word cannot be publicised, minimised, be gender biased or be published in other terms. The word “Allah” is free from all grammatical structure and corrupted meanings. It cannot be manipulated in whatever way from its original form. From the linguistic structure, the word “Allah” is superior compared to any other words from any other languages to preserve and protect its Oneness and Uniqueness as the One God that deserves our devotion2. As such, Muslims will never translate the word “Allah” into any language other than the original “Allah”.
b) Internationally, the use of “Allah” is literally synonym with Islam and Muslims. It is recognised by renowned dictionaries and encyclopaedias in the world. Among them are:
i. Oxford Dictionary - Allah: Name of God among Muslims3
ii. Britannica Encyclopaedia – Allah: “God”, the one and only in the religion of Islam.4
iii. Catholic Encyclopaedia – Let it be noted that although Allah is an Arabic term, it is used by all Moslems, whatever be their language, as the name of God.5
c) In the Malaysian context, the word “Allah” is not translated into Malay language and is retained without being translated. That is why “Allah” refers directly to the meaning in the Quran without modification in its saying (translation) or the meaning of the word itself.
This is proven as defined by Kamus Dewan 4th Edition: Allah: Ar (language origin Arabic) God (the only One); ~ azzawajalla the Nicest and the Most Sacred; ~ subhanahu wa taala: the most elevated God.6
Kamus Pelajar (Student Dictionary) defines “Allah” as follows:
The only One God, with the Most perfect attitude and is the Creator of the universe.7
Therefore, the word “Allah” cannot be regarded as a translation of „God‟ because it is an Arabic word which is retained as an adherence to the sacred Book of Muslims which has been a part of the Muslim culture and is fully understood by the non-Muslims in this country.
d) The act by the Catholic Church to translate the word „god‟ to “Allah” is not in accordance to the term used by the people in this country. The word „god‟ according to Kamus Dewan Inggeris-Melayu is:
n 1. male deity, dewa, tuhan; (archaic) betara: the Greek ~s, dewadewa Yunani; 2. idol, berhala, patung; 3. so., st. deified, tuhan: money has become his ~, wang telah menjadi tuhan baginya; make a ~ of /so., st/, bertuhankan /sso, sst/; 4. G~, Tuhan; (in Islam) Allah.8
The definition by Kamus Dewan is derived at based on the culture practiced in this country. This means that „god‟ for the non-Muslims is translated as deity and god, while, „God‟ (with a capital „g‟) is used as pronoun which refers to “Allah” and not as an English translation of the word “Allah” (as the number 4 definition above). This is similar to the Muslims using capital letters for every first alphabet of pronouns when referring to “Allah”, e.g; I, We, He and You.
e) The Malay Language Bible, which is claimed to be the reference for the usage of the word “Allah”, is unacceptable based on the credibility factor of the translation and ruling of Malaysia. The translation credibility is questioned. The authority involved in translating the Bible to Malay Language is unknown (for instance, was the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka consulted in this matter?). Furthermore, the judicial factor prohibits the usage of certain words which exclusively belongs to the Muslims by the non-Muslims. Therefore, the reason that they are referring to the Malay Language Bible is rejected by itself because the translation credibility can be disputed.
Second Reason: The claim that as early as the 19th century, the Catholics in Malaya had owned prayer books in Malay and the word “Allah” has been used in reference to God. The Maltese Catholic had also used the word “Allah” to refer to God and similarly the Christians in Indonesia, Pakistan and the West Asia.
Rejection Arguments:
a) The reason had arisen from the arrival of the Christian missionaries to the then Malaya and the archipelago. History has recorded that the main mission of the Western colonials to the Southeast Asia was to rake in the abundance of the earth and to propagate Christianity throughout the nation. Among the efforts actively undertaken by the missionaries were to translate the Bible into the local language and to perform religious rituals in the language that was locally understood.
As an example, the Bible translation by Dr. Mekhior Leidekler in 1733 has been accepted as a standard translation and was widely used in the 18th and 19th century in Malaya and Indonesia9. The activity of translating the Bible increased with the colonialism in Malaya after they successfully conquered Penang in 1786 and Malacca in 1795. Stamford Raffles was one of the English colonial leaders directly involved in propagating Christianity by distributing the translated Bible.
In 1852, the translated version in roman and jawi (Malay Arabic) was published and distributed widely in Malaya. Stamford Raffles was the strong force behind the effort undertaken by the Protestant missionaries from the London Missionary Association who envisioned printing plants in Malacca, Penang, Singapore and Betawi. Apart from printing the Bible, the activity also included printing Malay magazines with various knowledge segments, laced with Christian propaganda to further expand the religion in Malaya. Circa 1821–1905, various magazines had been published such as Buletin Ariffin (Ariffin Bulletin), Cermin Mata (The Spectacles), Sahabat (Friends) and Warta Melayu (The Malay Gazette). 10
The activity of distributing the Christian propaganda then was joined by the Protestant priests from America who represented the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions.11
All the facts lead to a valid reason for the government to disallow the Christians today to use the word “Allah” in the Malay Language Bible. This is because the translations do not envisaged the true literature of Christian doctrine but to be exploited as a medium to spread Christianity.
b) The attempt to compare Malaysia with other countries which uses “Allah” as a reference to „god‟ is also rejected. This is because there are different legends and cultures in every language used by the different races in a certain country. In this case, the background of the Malay Language which has been used by the Malaysians comes from the womb of Islam and the Malay culture – the Malay culture itself comes from Islam. Thus, it must mirror the customs of the Malays which originate from Islam. This is certainly different with the language background of the Indonesians and Singaporeans.
c) With regards to the usage of “Allah” by the Christians in West Asia, it also forms a weak argument. The non-Muslim Arabs have been using “Allah” based on the theological factors and culture which have existed in West Asia. The matter has been clarified in the Quran itself when the Book emerged to clarify and cleanse the meaning of “Allah” which had been misused by the Pagans and the Members of Scriptures (ahli Kitab) who are the Jews and Christians.
d) In the etymology and semantic context, the Catholic Church‟s reason to refer to the Arab Christians is a far deviation. They cannot compare the happenings of the Arab Christians with the Malaysian Christians. What happened there is that they translated the Bible from the Syriac Language (Syria/Syam) or Aramic and Hebrew to Arabic Language. We have to understand that Arabic, Aramic and Hebrew come from the same language group which is the Semitique. Therefore, the Arabs have the right to defend that “Allah” may have originated from their god in Aramic or Hebrew. However, what is the rationale behind the Christian Church to translate „god‟ from English Language Bible to “Allah” in the Malay version? Are both not from two different language groups which are diversed in etymology and semantic, let alone the environment that culturalised the usage of the language ?
Third reason: The claim that suggests even the Quranic verses suggested that the non-Muslims have been using “Allah”.

Rejecting Arguments:

a) One of the verses that have been referred to by the Catholic Church is from Surah al-'Ankabut, verse 61:

وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ

Meaning: Indeed, if you (The Prophet [peace and blessings be upon him]) asked them (the apostates), "Who created the Heavens and earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" They will surely say, "Allah." Then how are they deluded ?

لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَاثَةٍ ۘ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ إِلَّا إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۚ وَإِن لَّمْ يَنتَهُوا عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
Meaning: They have certainly disbelieved who say, "Allah is the third of three." And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.
Actually, both verses cannot be used as an argument for the non-Muslims to use the word “Allah”. It is based on the following facts:
i. In al-Ankabut, verse 61, the Quran is only depicting the understanding of the Pagan Arabs in using the word “Allah”. It is not to assent or allow the usage. On the other hand, it is to clarify that the Arabs were familiar with the word “Allah” even before the advent of Islam.
From the verse, the Quran clarifies that the Pagan Arabs only recognise Allah as (1) Creator of the sky and earth (2) Who simplifies the cycle of the sun and the moon (3) Who let water down from the sky and (4) The place to put hope. The concept is clearly against the true concept of Allah which is the Essence that is to be worshipped and not to be allied with any other.12
ii. Whereas, Surah al-Ma‟idah verse 73 cannot be a reason for the Christians to use the word “Allah” due to the fact that Allah Himself has denied those who opines that His Essence is one out of three (trinity). They are even considered as apostates.13 That means the word “Allah” uttered by the Christians is a waste and has no value to Allah, as it does not refer to the real meaning of Allah. As we all know, Allah refers to a named Essence. As an example, the word "car‟ refers to a motored vehicle. Thus, it is meaningless for those who use the word „car‟ to refer to a sewing machine. If they still use the word "car‟ but refers to a wrong thing, this means that the usage the word is pointless and bears no meaning.
b) Using the Quran as the reference to support the use of the word “Allah” for the non-Muslims is not really an excuse by the Catholic Church, but it is rather a plus point for the Muslims. It signifies the failure of the Catholic Church to argue based on the original scriptures of their sacred book. For Muslims, this is evidence that the Quran, being a sacred Book, has solid facts and is consistent. This is also a proof that the Catholic Church uses the Quran as the most reliable source to admit that “Allah” is a god‟s name as opposed to arguing based on historical debate and linguistic knowledge. Thus, the facts about Allah as explained in the Quran should be accepted.
Or, does the Catholic Church wish to proclaim that the word “Allah” in the Quran refers to the word “Elohim” in their original scripture in Hebrew? If the words “Allah” and “Elohim” refer to the same truth, why does the concept differ? The Quran mentions that Allah is the One and only and has no son, while the Catholic Church believes in the trinity concept. This means that the concept of Allah in Islam is very consistent that the Muslims do not have to translate it into any other worldly language. This is different from the concept of god in Christianity which does not have a clear and consistent source that it requires translations and borrowing from other languages.
Fourth Reason: The claim that the segments (translation) in Bahasa Malaysia are created to meet the needs of ethnic and linguistic diversity that exists in Malaysia which similarly exists in the Catholic population in Malaysia.
Rejecting Arguments:
a) The reason to translate it into Bahasa Malaysia as a sign that there exists diversity in the Catholic Christian population is also unacceptable. It should be known that Bahasa Malaysia comes from Malay Language. Item 152 in the Federal Constitution states that Malay Language is the national and official language of Malaysia. We have to remember that when the constitution was legislated, the word “Malaysia” has yet to exist. Therefore, when we refer to Bahasa Malaysia, we are referring to Malay Language, which actually refers to the Malay Muslim population. Thus, specific terminologies which have become the flagship (syiar) and symbol of the Malay Muslim population can never be re-conceptualised to fit in other cultures and religions.
b) Enforcing the usage of the word “Allah” among the Catholic Christians who converse in Malay Language in this country also will logically bring about negative impacts on Christianity‟s concept of god. It is well known that the word “Allah” is a term which has been dominated by the Malays who politically and culturally constitute 60% of the Malaysia population as compared to merely 9.1% Christians from various sects. Would the use of similar terminology not confuse the Christians who speak Malay Language? Thus, the more accurate translation such as “God” should be used by the Catholic Church to ensure that the beliefs of Christianity are always preserved as well as to prevent confusion.
Fifth Reason: The claim that the government does not have any right to interfere with the internal affairs of the church as ruled by the Item 11(3) A of the Federal Constitution.
Rejecting Arguments:
This argument has no basis at all. On the contrary, the government has been given a mandate by the Federal Constitution in Item 11(4) (to control and to prevent whatever faith or religious beliefs among those who are Muslims). Under this provision, the government (either the Federal Government or the State government) has legislated a law to control and prevent the expansion of other non-Islamic religions against the Muslims. For example, the Enactment of Control and Prevention of a Non-Islamic Religion Expansion in the State of Terengganu 1980, Section 9 mentioned; (prohibits someone (non-Muslim) from using specific words in writing, verbal or statement to visualise among others, the beliefs or whichever concept of the non-Islamic religions. The words include Allah, Ilahi, Rasul (Messenger), Nabi (Prophet), Wahyu (Revelation), Iman (Faith), Imam (Leader), Syariah (Pillars), Ulama‟ (Scholars), Da‟wah (Religious Mission), Injil (Bible), etc. The provision has clearly shown that the use of Allah as a translation to "god‟ in Bible is in fact against the enforcing law in our country. Thus, it cannot be classified as the church's internal affairs.
Additional Arguments
As additions to the arguments above, there are four other queries that have been brought forward to the Catholic Church with regards to their claim and the Muslims in Malaysia demand for an answer, which are:
a) Why does the Catholic Church not use the original terminology for god as mentioned in the original language of their scriptures? Why does the god‟s name need to be translated when a name of a god is specific which is supposed to be utilised regardless of the language barrier. Is it not the word god in Hebrew‟s Bible is referred to as Elohim, El, Eloh or Elah ?
b) Why should there be contrasting views among the Christians about the name of their god? In August, 2007, a Roman Catholic priest in Netherland, Tiny Muskens called for all Christians to use the word “Allah”. However, the call was objected by the Protestant Christians and the Catholic Christians. The President of the Catholic league for Religious and Civil Rights disputed the idea in his statement: “Bishop Martinus Tiny Muskens can pray to “Allah” all he wants, but only addle pated Catholics will follow his lead. It is not a good sign when members of the Catholic hierarchy indulge in a fawning exchange with Muslims or those of any other religion14. The Chairman of the General Synod of the Dutch Protestant Church, Gerrit de Fijter also opposed Musken‟s idea that the Christians use the word “Allah”. He said, “I applaud every attempt to encourage dialogue with Muslims, but I doubt the sense of this manoeuvre”.15
Apart from that, there was an article written in Arabic by Izzat Andrews, a Coptic Christian in Egypt entitled “Allah is not the god of Christian and Jews”. He said that the word “Allah” merely came from the Pagans which refers to moon god. It has never been written in the scriptures of the Jews or Christians. The god for the Christians is Elohim. 16 The statements above clearly showed that the usage of Allah for the Christians is still considered a polemic among the Christian scholars. Hence, what is the argument by the Malaysian Catholic Church to defend the use of Allah when it still has not been finalised by the Christians internationally ?
c) As with the previous argument, the Christian colonials came to the Tanah Melayu with two missions. One of them is to propagate Christianity to the whole archipelago. Bernama has reported an article from The Minaret published by the California Islamic Centre which mentioned that the Christian missionaries have targeted Malaysia for a Christianity movement called “Window 10/40”. This is because Malaysia is one of the countries situated within the latitude 10 and 40 in the world map.17 In a report, the Johor Department of Islamic Affairs joined forces with the Home Ministry to confiscate 250 books titles about Christianity in Malay Language. The books use titles such as Kaabah (Kaaba), Wahyu Ilahi (God's Revelation) and Mengenal Rasul (Knowing the Prophet). One glance at the titles seems like it is a tactic to entice Muslims to read the books. 18 Therefore, what guarantee does the Catholic Church have that the use of Allah is only limited to the Christians and not for the Muslims ?
d) Will the Catholic Church agree if it is said that the facts about god in the Bible is not as clear and accurate as in the Quran. It is even contradictory to one another. For example, there is a verse in Bible about the Oneness of god as in the Old Testament which says: “Remember O you Israelis! The only god is our god”. 19 However, in other places, there are many verses that contradict the Oneness of god, as in the New Testament; “After everyone baptised, Jesus was baptised too. When He prayed, the sky opens up and Allah‟s soul existed with a pigeon came down on It. Then there was a voice from Heaven which said: “You are My Son, whom I love. You make me happy.”20 The facts about Allah in the Quran are very consistent and never vary. Surah Al Ikhlas mentions clearly who the true “Allah” is. Allah s.w.t. decrees meaning: “Say (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)): „He is Allah, (the) One. „Allah-us-Samad (The Self-sufficient Master, Whom all Creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). „He begets not, nor was He begotten; „And there is none comparable unto Him.”
In tandem, the Quran teaches Muslims that if a conflict arises against the Muslims by the Members of Scriptures (the Jews and Christians), it is the responsibility of Muslims to call for them to accept the concept of Allah as explained in the Quran itself. Allah decrees about this in Surah Ali Imran verses 64:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ
Meaning: Say (O Muhammad SAW): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, That we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none shall of us take others as Lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: „Bear Witness that we are Muslims‟.”
The question now is, does the Catholic Church willing to consider the call of the Quran to use “Allah” and refers to the same truth which is The Only One God without any alliance to Him?
The decision by the Fatwa Committee of the National Council Meeting
The 82nd meeting of the Fatwa Committee of the National Council for Islamic Matters that was held from the 5th to 7th May, 2008 decided that the use of the word “Allah” is specific for Islam and the Muslims only.
Opinions from Islamic Scholars Abroad
The Views of the Representative of Al-Azhar (the Vice Syeikh al-Azhar) and the Head of Inter-Religion Dialogue Committee (Lajnah) of al-Azhar, Fadhilat Al-Syeikh Abdul Fattah 'Allam
He opined that the decision by the Malaysian government to forbid the usage of Allah among the non-Muslims is the right decision. This is because the word Allah cannot be equalised to the word “Rabb” which means The Existence. As we know, the non-Muslims name any god that they worship e.g.: rocks, animals, sun, and others as Allah. This is certainly very improper and against the meaning of the word “Allah” as what is written in the Quran and Hadiths (the Prophet's sayings).21
The Views from the Law Advisor of the Saudi Arabia Judicial Ministry, Syeikh Abdul Muhsin al-'Abikan
He opined that the approach by the Malaysian government is intended to prevent the misuse of Allah others than its actual meaning which is The All Creator (The Only God). This is because there are other religions that use the term “Allah” for their religion when in actual fact they worship deities, hence the name “Allah” should not be used to depict any other gods other than Him.22
Kuwait Islamic Constitutional Movement Personality, Syeikh Abdul Hamid al-Ballali
He fully supported the decision to prohibit the non-Muslims to use the word “Allah” as their god's name. He reasoned that the decision was very significant to preserve the true meaning of the word “Allah”. The people who fail to conserve their religious terminology are the people who are forgetful, when Allah s.w.t. has raised this group as the best of people.
He also added that the Muslims should realise that there are many Islamic terminologies that have been exploited, misused or misled by certain parties. For instance, the word “Syahid” (Martyr) is also being used by the non-Muslims. The term “Riba” (Interest) has been changed to “Bank Interest”. “Khamar” (intoxicant) is changed to “Soul Drink”. “Liwat” (Sodomy) has been changed to “same type relationship”. The question now is - are the Muslims aware of the phenomena as the same awareness that has been shown by the 
Malaysian government? 23
The Government's Decision
The decision by the Cabinet meeting dated 16th May, 1986 ruled that “Allah” is included in the prohibited terms to be used by the non-Muslims. In fact, the use of “Allah”, “Baitullah”, “Solat” (prayer) and “Kaaba” has been gazetted as exclusive for Muslims under the P.U. (A) 15/82 Report and KKDN.S.59/3/6/A Circular dated 5th December, 1986. Meanwhile, the Cabinet who met on 3rd January, 2008 decided to let the ban to remain as had been decided on 18th October and 1st November, 2006 respectively.
Based on the arguments that have been stated above, there is no reason for the government to allow the Christians to use the word “Allah”. In fact, the government's decision is in tandem with Item 3 of Federal Constitution which has enthroned Islam as the Federal religion. Other religious groups in Malaysia are already aware that any issue related to Islam, either directly or indirectly, should respect the special position of Islam and the Malay Muslims in this country.

1 The article has been published in JAKIM Research Journal, No. 21, 2008.
2 (1990) Mengapa Kalimah Allah?, Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam, JPM KL page 32-33
3 A.S Hornby (1985), Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, Great Britain, p. 23.
4 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005770/Allah. Surfed on 8th June, 2008
5 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01316a.htm. Surfed on 8th June 2008
6 http://sbmb.dbp.gov.my/knb/cariankata/dbp_ka_rujukan_kamus_dbp.aspx. Surfed 8th June 2008.
7 Ibid
8 http://sbmb.dbp.gov.my/knb/cariankata/dbp_ka_rujukan_kamus_dbp.aspx. Surfed on 8th June 2008 
9 Neill,S (1956). Colonialism and Christian Missions. London: Lutterworth Press, p. 77. 
10 Neill,S (1956). Colonialism and Christian Missions. London: Lutterworth Press, p 180-181
11 Ibid
12 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, j. 6, p. 403.
13 Tafsir al-Tabari, j. 10, p. 482
14 http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,293394,00.html. Surfed on 8th June, 2008.
15 http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,22254040-13762,00.html. Surfed on 8th June 2008.
16 http://www.coptichistory.org/new_page_197.htm.  
17 Berita Harian, 4 February 1997
18 Utusan Malaysia dated 3rd February 1997
19 Refer Al-Kitab, The Bible Society Of Malaysia, Old Testament Repeat Books Chap 6 ver 4
20 Refer Al-Kitab, The Bible Society Of Malaysia, New Testament Lukas Chap 3 ver 21 and 22
21 The statement is made by him when the writer attended the Fatwa and Missionary Management Course from May-July 2009.
22 JAKIM Aqidah Section File   
23 JAKIM Aqidah Section File. 

Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur‟an al-„Azim
Al-Thabari, Jami„ al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur‟an
(1990), Mengapa Kalimah Allah?, Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam, JPM KL.
A.S Hornby (1985), Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English,
Oxford University Press, Great Britain.
Neill,S (1956). Colonialism and Christian Missions. London: Lutterworth Press.
Berita Harian, 4 February 1997
Utusan Malaysia 3 February 1997
Al-Kitab, The Bible Society of Malaysia

my source: islam.gov.my

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