Mar 5, 2013

Royal Sultanate of Sulu And Sabah - The Timeline

Timeline: The centuries-old tug-of-war over Sabah
February 18, 2013 2:20pm

Last week, over 200 allegedly armed men holed up in a village in the eastern Malaysian state of Sabah. Identifying themselves as the "royal army" of the Sultanate of Sulu in Mindanao, the group engaged Malaysian authorities in a standoff as authorities from both Philippines and Malaysia discuss ways to address the problem that traces its roots back to the 15th century.

15th century - The Islamic sultanate of Brunei is nominally in control of Borneo, including Sabah and Sarawak states of Malaysia, and some parts of the Sulu islands in the Philippines.

1658 - The Sultan of Brunei cedes Sabah to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for his help in settling a civil war in the Brunei Sultanate

In June 1658, Brunei Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin awarded the northeast coast of Borneo (Sabah), including Palawan, to Sulu Sultan Salah ud-Din Karamat Bakhtiar for helping settle a civil war dispute against Pengiran Bongsu Muhyuddin.

The Sultan of Sulu sent more than 250 elite Tausug warriors led by Panglima Ilijji (forefather of Nur P. Misuari, founder of the Moro National Liberation Front/ MNLF) to assist the Sultan of Brunei.

1673 - Brunei Sultan Bongsu Muhyuddin, upon ascending to the throne, confirms the Sultan of Sulu as sovereign landowner of the territories of North Borneo/Sabah and the island of Palawan.

1761 - Alexander Dalrymple, Madras representative of the British East India Company, entered into a lease agreement with self-proclaimed Sultan Muiz ud-Din for the rental of Sabah. The agreement permitted Dalrymple to set up a trading post on Balembangan island in Kudat North Borneo (Sabah).

Source: "Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples" by Josiah C. Ang, PM

1878 - Sulu Sultan Jamal ul-Alam leases North Borneo to the Hong Kong-based British trading company of Baron Gustavos von Overbeck and Alfred Dent and confers upon Overbeck the title Datu Bendahara, Raja of Sandakan

Source: "Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples" by Josiah C. Ang, PM

1888 - The United Kingdom establishes protectorate over North Borneo

1939 - A group of heirs of the Sultan filed suit against the Government of North Borneo and the British North Borneo Company for the recovery of the stipulated annual payments. The High Court of the State of North Borneo, through Chief Justice Macaskie, rendered judgment in favor of the heirs on December 18, 1939.

Source: "The North Borneo Question" by Jovito R. Salonga

1941-1945 - North Borneo comes under Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific War. Following the end of Japanese occupation, the British North Borneo Chartered Company relinquished its duties.

1946 - North Borneo becomes a British crown colony.

Source: ‘Colonial administrators and post-independence leaders in Malaysia (1826–2000)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press

1957 - The heirs of the Sultan of Sulu issue a proclamation declaring the termination of the lease contract over the territory in question effective January 22, 1958.

Source: "The North Borneo Question" by Jovito R. Salonga

1962 - President Diosdado Macapagal files the Philippines' claim over Sabah with the United Kingdom.

1963 - North Borneo or Sabah united with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore, forming the independent Federation of Malaysia.

United Nations conducted a referendum at the behest of the Philippines and Indonesia. The people of Sabah overwhelmingly voted to become part of Malaysia.

Source: "Where in the World Is the Philippines?: Debating Its National Territory" by Rodolfo Severino

1965-1986 - Relations improved between the Philippines and Malaysia during Ferdinand Marcos' presidency, but the dispute over Sabah was not formally settled.

Source: Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1 by Ooi Keat Gin

1967 - Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is established. The Sabah crisis persists, but open military confrontation is avoided.

Source: Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1 by Ooi Keat Gin

1967 - A destabilization plan called Operation Merdeka is set into action. Nearly 200 Tausug and Sama Muslims aged 18 to 30 from Sulu and Tawi-Tawi were recruited and trained in the island-town of Simunul in Tawi-Tawi. The name of the commando unit was Jabidah.

On December 30, the recruits boarded a Philippine Navy vessel for the island of Corregidor in Luzon for "specialized training."

"This second phase of the training turned mutinous when the recruits discovered their true mission. It struck the recruits that the plan would mean not only fighting their brother Muslims in Sabah, but also possibly killing their own Tausug and Sama relatives living there," Paul F. Whitman wrote in "The Corregidor Massacre - 1968."

On March 18, 1968, the Jabidah planners led the trainees out of their Corregidor barracks on the night of March 18, 1968 in batches of twelve, according to the sole survivor, Jibin Arula. At a nearby airstrip, the planners mowed the trainees down with gunfire, Whitman wrote.

As a result, diplomatic relations were suspended between Malaysia and the Philippines.

1969 - Diplomatic relations between Malaysia and the Philippines are formally resumed

1977 - President Ferdinand Marcos declares at the second ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur that the Philippines is "taking definite steps to eliminate one of the burdens of ASEAN - the claim of the Philippines republic.

Source: "Where in the World Is the Philippines?: Debating Its National Territory" by Rodolfo Severino

Former President Corazon Aquino (1986-1992) and Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) continue to seek to improve relations between the two countries.

1993 - Ramos visits Malaysia

1994 - Malaysia Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (1981 - 2003) visits the Philippines

2001 - Former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2000 - 2004, 2004 - 2009) visits Malaysia

Source: Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1 by Ooi Keat Gin

2013 - A group claiming to be the Royal Sulu Sultanate Army lands in Lahad Datu village in Sabah on February 12. A standoff ensued between the group and Malaysian authorities. The group turned out to be followers of Sultan Jamalul Kiram, who said his men will never leave Sabah.

Timeline: The centuries-old tug-of-war over Sabah | News | GMA News Online


Brief History Of Semporna.

Semporna was founded soon after the British North Borneo Company established Sandakan, and initially settled by Chinese traders. The name Semporna, means place of rest, and was given after the British quelled resistance from the local Bajaus in the mid-1880s.

'Tong Talun' was the original name of Semporna. The disrict of Semporna was initially part of the Sulu Sultanate, a ruling power that had its grasp on parts of Philippines and North Borneo. In 1876 and for nearly a century, the area known as North Borneo came under the governance of the British North Borneo Chartered Company.

The Dutch came by Semporna in June 1876 but never actually defeated the British to attain the island. Then in 1963 after a referundum, the state of Sabah joined the independent Fedetarion of Malaya, what is now Malaysia. Chinese traders played an important role in building up the economy of this coastal town. Marine products from back then were the main sources of livehood for the local inhabitants. A wide range of pearls are still now produced for the local and international market. Seaweed farming and clam cultivation are some of the other ventures.

Pulau Umaral (Omadal), a small island south east of Semporna is home to the first established settlement. Umaral, also known to some as Omadal is where the original Bajau tribe existed. These expert seafarers eventually established themselves in neighboring islands and on the mainland. Inscriptions of Quadratic verses on old gravestones and traditional culture steeped with the teachings of Islam point to the muslim religion amongst the Bajau.

Living here also are the sea gypsies known as the 'Palauh' who have retained their drifting seafaring lifestyle. The traditional nomads of this kind still skim the waters in their boathouses, using the reef in their forage for food. It is not an unusual sights to see the caravans of the sea gypsies in transit from reef to fishing ground.

Today, the local population include a colourful mix of local Bajau, Chinese, Philippino and Indonesian all who bring with them their individual culture, language and dialects. These people who do not often meet foreigners make some of the friendliest, unassuming people ever.

Sejarah Awal Semporna

'Tong Talun' adalah merupakan nama asal bagi daerah Semporna yang bererti "Hujung Hutan" dalam istilah Suku Kaum Bajau. Orang yang bertanggungjawab untuk menamakan Tong Talun ialah Panglima Uddang, Panglima Sallehangni dan Panglima Sakti dari keturunan Bajau Kubang. Ini kerana pada ketika itu daerah Semporna diliputi/diselubungi oleh hutan belantara di awal penemuannya. Kemudian, Tong Talun telah ditukar dengan nama SEMPORNA yang membawa pengertian "Tempat Yang Aman atau Damai" sehinggalah sekarang.
Daerah Semporna berada dibawah jajahan takluk Kesultanan Sulu, sebuah kuasa politik yang dominan pada suatu masa dahulu. Jajahan takluknya meliputi sebahagian Filipina (sebelah selatan) dan Borneo Utara. Pada 1876 kawasan yang dikenali dengan Borneo Utara ini telah diperintah oleh Syarikat 'British North Borneo Chartered Company' yang dimiliki sepenuhnya oleh Kerajaan British. Bermula dari itu, Sultan Sulu telah menyerahkan Sabah secara "untuk selamanya dan berkekalan" kepada syarikat ini sebagai wilayah kuasa urus-tadbir mereka.

Kuasa lain yang pernah cuba menakluk Semporna termasuklah Belanda, namun mereka gagal berbuat demikian kerana kehadiran syarikat British disini. Pada tahun 1963, Sabah telah bersatu dengan Persekutuan Malaya untuk membentuk Malaysia.

Pulau Umaral (Omadal), sebuah pulau kecil di perairan Semporna merupakan titik penting sejarah Semporna. Ini kerana Pulau Omadal merupakan tempat asal suku kaum Bajau yang mendiami Semporna. Orang Bajau Pulau Omadal merupakan pelaut/ nelayan yang gigih dan aktif dalam perdagangan hasil laut dan seringkali berurusan dengan lain-lain kepulauan termasuklah tanah besar Semporna. Bukti-bukti terhadap kenyataan ini dapat diperhatikan menerusi ukiran/tulisan di batu nisan dan lain-lain artifak yang jelas menandakan mereka ini beragama Islam.

Daerah Semporna juga adalah kawasan kediaman suku kaum nomad (orang-asli) laut yang dikenali dengan 'Palauh'. Kaum ini masih wujud di Semporna hingga kini dan boleh dilihat di perairan Semporna. Mereka tinggal di bot-bot tradisi di laut dan sentiasa berpindah-randah dari satu pulau ke pulau yang lain. Kaum palauh hanya akan singgah ke tanah besar Semporna jika memerlukan barangan harian atau sebab kematian. Kini sesetengah mereka telah berubah kepada kehidupan yang moden.

The  details @

Semporna is a town located in Tawau Division, 
in the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo


North Borneo (Sabah)

An annotated timeline 1640s-present


By Manuel L. Quezon III
Note from the author: I am sharing a timeline I have compiled of key events and accompanying literature on the North Borneo (Sabah) issue. This timeline is being shared for academic and media research purposes. It is not being published as an official statement of policy in any shape or form, nor does this timeline purport to be representative of the views of the Philippine government.

Spain signed peace treaties with the strongest sultanates, Sulu and Maguindanao, recognizing their de facto independence.[1]
Sultan of Sulu became sovereign ruler of most of North Borneo by virtue of a cession from the Sultan of Brunei whom he had helped in suppressing a rebellion.
There is no document stating the grant of North Borneo from Sultan of Brunei to Sultan of Sulu, but it is accepted by all sides.[2]
March 17, 1824
Treaty of London signed by the Netherlands and Great Britain
Allocates certain territories in the Malay archipelago to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands (Dutch East Indies).[3]
September 23, 1836
Treaty of Peace and Commerce between Spain and Sulu, signed in Sulu
Granting Spanish protection of sultanate, mutual defense, and safe passage for Spanish and Joloan ships between ports of Manila, Zamboanga, and Jolo.[4]
Ortiz: Spain did not claim sovereignty over Sulu, but merely offered “the protection of Her Government and the aid of fleets and soldiers for wars…”[5]
Muda Hassim, uncle of the Sultan of Sulu,  publicly announced as successor to the Sultanate of Sulu with the title of Sultan Muda: he was also the leader of the “English party,”(today the term for Crown Prince is Raja Muda)[6]
The British Government appoints James Brooke as a confidential agent in Borneo[7]
The British Government extends help to Sultan Muda to deal with piracy and settle the Government of Borneo[8]
April 1846
Sir James Brooke receives intelligence that the Sultan of Sulu ordered the murder of Muda Hassim, and some thirteen Rajas and many of their followers; Muda Hassim kills himself because he found that resistance is useless. [9]
July 19, 1846
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, Commander-in-chief of East Indies and China Station of the Royal Navy, issued a Proclamation to cease hostilities (“piracy,” crackdown versus pro-British faction) if the Sultan of Sulu would govern “lawfully” and respect his engagements with the British Government
If the Sultan persisted, the Admiral proclaimed that the squadron would burn down the capital of the sultanate.[10]
May 7, 1847
James Brooke is instructed by the British Government to conclude a treaty with the Sultan of Brunei
British occupation of Labuan is confirmed and Sultan concedes that no territorial cession of any portion of his country should ever be made to any foreign power without the sanction of Great Britain[11]
May 29, 1849
Convention of Commerce between Britain and the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultan of Sulu will not cede any territory without the consent of the British. [12]
April 30, 1851
Treaty signed with Spain by the Sultan of Sulu, Mohammed Pulalun
The Sultanate of Sulu was incorporated into the Spanish Monarchy.[13] January 17, 1867
that, whatever Treaty rights Spain may have had to the sovereignty of Sulu and its dependencies, those rights must be considered as having lapsed owing to the complete failure of Spain to attain a de facto control over the territory claimed.
May 30, 1877
Protocol of Sulu signed between Spain, Germany, and Great Britain, providing free movement of ships engaged in commerce and direct trading in the Sulu Archipelago
British Ambassadors in Madrid and Berlin were instructed that the protocol implies recognition of Spanish claims over Sulu or its dependencies.
At this point the following western countries have possessions in Southeast Asia:
1. British = Singapore, Malaya, Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo
2. Germany = Papua New Guinea
3. Netherlands = Indonesia
4. Spain = Philippines, Guam, Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands
5. France = Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (French IndoChina)[14]
December 1877
Expeditions of Alfred Dent to control north part of Borneo began
Alfred Dent, member of the commercial house of Dent Brothers and Co. of London [15]
January 22, 1878
Sir Alfred Dent obtains sovereign control over the northern part of Borneo for 5,300 ringgit ($5,000) from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu. See contending translations of relevant portions of this document. See also the Spanish translation. See another English translation.
Concessions would later be confirmed by Her Majesty’s Royal Charter in November, 1881 granted to the British North Borneo Co.
The territory of the Sultan of Sulu over the island of Borneo,
commencing from the Pandassan River on the north-west coast and extending along the whole east coast as far as the Sibuco River in the south and comprising amongst other the States of Paitan, Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, Sandakan, Kina Batangan, Mumiang, and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco river with all the islands within three marine leagues of the coast. [16]
(Baron de Overbeck, Austrian national heavily connected with the house of Dent and Co. at Hong Kong. Overbeck was sent to Borneo as a representative of Dent and Co. to enter negotiations with Sultans and Chiefs of Brunei and Sulu – Dec 1878 Statement and Application of Debt of Dent and Overbeck to the Marquis of Salisbury)[17]
Sultan of Sulu Mohammed Jamalul Alam (Translation of Deed of 1878 by Prof. Harold Conklin) wrote letters to the Governor of Jolo, Carlos Martinez  and the Captain-General Malcampo to revoke what he termed the lease he granted over North Borneo. [18]
July 4, 1878
According to the letter of the Sultan, Sandakan was not ceded to the United Kingdom but was only leased. The Sultan added that he only did this under the threat of attack from the British[19]
July 22, 1878
Bases of Peace and Capitulation signed in Jolo.
Sultan of Sulu, Mohammed Jamalul Alam declared the sovereignty of Spain over the Archipelago of Suluand its dependencies while granting free exercise of religion and customs for his people. [20]
December 2, 1878
Dent and Overbeck apply for a Charter of Incorporation from Queen Victoria[22]
April 16, 1879
Acting Governor Treacher writes to the Colonial Office, objecting to hoisting of Spanish flag over North Borneo.
November 5, 1879
November 1, 1881
Queen Victoria grants Charter of Incorporation to the British North Borneo Company
British North Borneo Company now does actually exist “as a Territorial Power” and not “as a Trading Company”[23]
November 16, 1881
Spaniards protest granting of Royal Charter
By virtue of treaties of capitulation of 1836, 1851, and 1878, Spain exercised sovereignty over Sulu and its dependencies including North Borneo; Sultan of Sulu had no right to enter into any treaties or make any cessions whatsoever [24]
January 7, 1882
British Foreign Minister Earl Granville’s letter says Crown assumes no dominion or sovereignty over the territories occupied by the Company, nor does it purport to grant to the Company any powers of Government thereover.
March 7, 1885
Spanish claims to Borneo abandoned by Protocol of Sulu entered into by England, Germany and Spain
Spanish supremacy over the Sulu Archipelago was recognised on condition of their abandoning all claim to the portions of Northern Borneo which are now included in the British North Borneo Company’s concessions[26]
May 12, 1888
While civil war was ongoing in Sulu, “State of North Borneo” is made a British protectorate
An agreement between the British North Borneo Company and Great Britain; British Government admits the North Borneo Company derived its rights and powers to govern the territory.[27]
June 14, 1888
British Protectorate established over Sarawak[28]
September 17, 1888
British Protectorate established over Brunei[29]
Jose Rizal proposes to the Spanish government to establish a Filipino colony in Sabah. This plan, however, does not push through.
Federated Malay States
Provinces included: Negeri Sembilan, Pehang, Perak and Selangor[30]
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II rules the Sultanate of Sulu
December 10, 1898
Spain cedes the Philippine Islands to the United States of America. The treaty lines did not include North Borneo (Sabah).[31]
President Aguinaldo invites the Sultan of Sulu to join the newly-established First Republic of the Philippines.
Malolos Congress appointed representatives for Jolo: Benito Legarda and Victor Papa[32]
August 20, 1899
Kiram-Bates Treaty
Treaty acknowledged the “sovereignty of the United States over Jolo and its dependencies”
December 5, 1899
In his State of the Union Message, William McKinley discusses American policy towards the Sultanate of Sulu:
The authorities of the Sulu Islands have accepted the succession of the United States to the rights of Spain, and our flag floats over that territory. On the 10th of August, 1899, Brig. Gen. J. C. Bates, United States Volunteers, negotiated an agreement with the Sultan and his principal chiefs, which I transmit herewith. By Article I the sovereignty of the United States over the whole archipelago of Jolo and its dependencies is declared and acknowledged.
The United States flag will be used in the archipelago and its dependencies, on land and sea. Piracy is to be suppressed, and the Sultan agrees to co-operate heartily with the United States authorities to that end and to make every possible effort to arrest and bring to justice all persons engaged in piracy. All trade in domestic products of the archipelago of Jolo when carried on with any part of the Philippine Islands and under the American flag shall be free, unlimited, and undutiable. The United States will give full protection to the Sultan in case any foreign nation should attempt to impose upon him. The United States will not sell the island of Jolo or any other island of the Jolo archipelago to any foreign nation without the consent of the Sultan. Salaries for the Sultan and his associates in the administration of the islands have been agreed upon to the amount of $760 monthly.
Article X provides that any slave in the archipelago of Jolo shall have the right to purchase freedom by paying to the master the usual market value. The agreement by General Bates was made subject to confirmation by the President and to future modifications by the consent of the parties in interest. I have confirmed said agreement, subject to the action of the Congress, and with the reservation, which I have directed shall be communicated to the Sultan of Jolo, that this agreement is not to be deemed in any way to authorize or give the consent of the United States to the existence of slavery in the Sulu archipelago. I communicate these facts to the Congress for its information and action.
February 1, 1900
In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of January 24, 1900, I transmit herewith a copy of the report and all accompanying papers of Brig-Gen. John C. Bates, in relation to the negotiations of a treaty or agreement made by him with the Sultan of Sulu on the 20th day of August, 1899.
I reply to the request and said resolution for further information that the payments of money provided for by the agreement will be made from the revenues of the Philippine Islands, unless Congress shall otherwise direct.
Such payments are not for specific services but are a part consideration due to the Sulu tribe or nation under the agreement, and they have been stipulated for subject to the action of Congress in conformity with the practice of this Government from the earliest times in its agreements with the various Indian nations occupying and governing portions of the territory subject to the sovereignty of the United States.
Not ratified by the U.S. Senate, President Theodore Roosevelt abrogates treaty[33]
November 7, 1900
Consolidate the American possessions in the Sulu archipelago by including the islands of Sibutu and Cagayan, both of which had always formed part of the possessions of the Sulu sultanate.[34]
November 7, 1900
British North Borneo Company obtains from Sultan of Sulu even more territory
December 3, 1900
In his State of the Union Message, William McKinley provides details on the Convention of 1900:
I feel that we should not suffer to pass any opportunity to reaffirm the cordial ties that existed between us and Spain from the time of our earliest independence, and to enhance the mutual benefits of that commercial intercourse which is natural between the two countries.
By the terms of the Treaty of Peace the line bounding the ceded Philippine group in the southwest failed to include several small islands lying westward of the Sulus, which have always been recognized as under Spanish control. The occupation of Sibutd and Cagayan Sulu by our naval forces elicited a claim on the part of Spain, the essential equity of which could not be gainsaid. In order to cure the defect of the treaty by removing all possible ground of future misunderstanding respecting the interpretation of its third article, I directed the negotiation of a supplementary treaty, which will be forthwith laid before the Senate, whereby Spain quits all title and claim of title to the islands named as well as to any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago lying outside the lines described in said third article, and agrees that all such islands shall be comprehended in the cession of the archipelago as fully as if they had been expressly included within those lines. In consideration of this cession the United States is to pay to Spain the sum of $100,000.
A bill is now pending to effect the recommendation made in my last annual message that appropriate legislation be had to carry into execution Article VII of the Treaty of Peace with Spain, by which the United States assumed the payment of certain claims for indemnity of its citizens against Spain. I ask that action be taken to fulfill this obligation.
April 22, 1903
Additional $300 a year paid for a Confirmatory Deed stipulating that certain islands not specifically mentioned in the Deed of 1878 had in fact been always understood to be included therein.[35]
November 19, 1906
Note of the U.S. Department of State to the British Embassy in Washington, D.C.
…the US Department of State stated that Sabah was not an Imperial possession of the British Crown, that the British North Borneo Company which had leased Sabah from the Sultan of Sulu, did not have a national status, and that the company did not have an administration with the standing of a government…[36]
March 22, 1915
Governor of Mindanao and Sulu Frank W. Carpenter signs an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu which relinquishes the Sultan’s, and his heirs’, right to temporal sovereignty, tax collection, and arbitration laws. In exchange, the Sultan gets an allowance, a piece of land and recognition as religious leader.[37]
May 4, 1920
Temporal Sovereignty and Ecclesiastical Authority of the Sultanate of Sulu
…Gov. Frank W. Carpenter acknowledged the temporal sovereignty and ecclesiastical authority of the Sultanate of Sulu beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the United States government especially with reference to the portion of the Island of Borneo (Sabah) which is a dependency of the Sultan of Sulu.[38]
Governor Frank W. Carpenter in a letter to the Director of Non-Christian Tribes stresses in a letter that the signing of the Agreement meant the “termination of all the rights of temporal sovereignty” which the Sultan had previously exercised in Sulu within American territory without prejudice to North Borneo.
Clarification: without prejudice or effect as to the temporal sovereignty and ecclesiastical authority of the Sultanate beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. Government, especially with reference to that portion of the island of Borneo which, as a dependency of the Sultanate of Sulu is understood to be held under lease by the Chartered Company which is known as the British North Borneo Company.[39]
British North Borneo Company attempts to have Sultan Jamalul Kiram to take up residence in Sandakan to acquire a good title to the ownership of the territories
A palace was offered in Sandakan to place himself under their protection. On two occasions, Gov. Carpenter had to send the Chief of Police of Jolo to bring the Sultan back from Sandakan [40]
June 11, 1926
Bacon Bill
Rep. Bacon files bill to separate Mindanao from the Philippines. [41]
January 2, 1930
Clarifies which islands in the region belong to U.S. and which belong to the State of North Borneo; delimits the  boundary between the Philippine Archipelago (under U.S. sovereignty) and the State of North Borneo (under British protection) [42]
November 15, 1935
1935 Constitution
The Philippines comprises all the territory ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris concluded between the United States and Spain on the tenth day of December, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, the limits which are set forth in Article III of said treaty, together with all the islands embraced in the treaty concluded at Washington between the United States and Spain on the seventh day of November, nineteen hundred, and the treaty concluded between the United States and Great Britain on the second day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty, and all territory over which the present Government of the Philippine Islands exercises jurisdiction.
June 11, 1936
Sultan of Sulu (Jamalul Kiram) dies and the question of the perpetuation of the Sultanate is raised. Sultan Muwallil Wasit succeeds his brother but dies before he was crowned.[43]
Brother is the claimant though his niece Dayang-Dayang, married to Datu Ombra, wishes to be Sultana. Quezon considers her to be the ablest of the Moros but Mohameddan law 


( Added by Islam Browser: Islam is not a Muhammadian as understood by some of non-muslim, Allah says in Quran " This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion - Quran, Surah Al Maidah part of verse 3) means Islam is not created by Prophet Muhammad.


does not permit a woman to be Sultan. Harrison points out large portion of political sovereignty already surrendered to Wood in 1903 and Carpenter in 1915. Quezon to recognize Sultan only as the religious head. British North Borneo Company expressed interest because of the stipend paid by the Company to the Sultan. [44]
January 29, 1937
Datu Ombra Amilbangsa is proclaimed Sultan of Sulu
He is the husband of Dayang Dayang Hadji Piandao. His title becomes Sultan Mohammed Amirul Ombra Amilbangsa. His Crown Prince is Esmail Kiram, having given up his own present pretentions to the Sultanate[45]
About the same time, Datu Tambuyong is proclaimed and crowned Sultan.
His title becoming, Sultan Jainal Aberin. He chose Datu Buyungan, his brother and present husband of Tarhata Kiram as Crown Prince.[46]
While Esmail Kiram I did not assume the throne, Dayang Dayang makes her husband, Datu Ombra Amilbangsa, sultan. Datu Tambuyong is also crowned sultan but by opposing Moro leaders.
Datu Ombra is named Sultan Amirul Ombra Amilbangsa; Datu Tambuyong is crowned Sultan Jainal Aberin. The two claimed the sultanate from 1937-1950.[47]
May 9, 1937
Through the efforts of Dayang Dayang, the British resume payment of lease. [48]
September 20, 1937
Memorandum on Administration of Affairs in Mindanao of President Quezon to Secretary Quirino: Titles of Datus and Sultans are recognized but have no Official Rights and Powers[49]
October 2, 1937
Representative of Sulu Datu Amilbangsa writes to President Quezon.
Datu Amilbangsa claims that the policy as released covering this subject was most unnecessary, as the non-recognition has already taken effect since the abrogation of the Bates Treaty and the implantation of the Civil Government in the regions referred to. [50]
October 8, 1937
Three-point policy for Mindanao and Sulu letter from the Executive Secretary Jorge Vargas to the Representative of Sulu Datu Amilbangsa.
Jorge Vargas communicates President Manuel L. Quezon’s policy to recognize the titles of Datus and Sultans but no official rights and powers.[51]
December 18, 1939
High Court of the State of North Borneo hands down decision in Civil Suit No. 169/39 in it, North Borneo Chief Justice C.F.C. Mackaskie stated that the heirs of the sultan were legally entitled the payment for North Borneo, which the decision calls “cession payment” on the basis of an English translation by Maxwell and Gibson.
In the same decision, Mackaskie renders an obiter dictum opinion or side note, that the Philippine Government is the successor-in-sovereignty to the Sultanate of Sulu.
This obiter dictum however, does not establish a legal precedent, and was furthermore based on a report from the British Consul in Manila, claiming that the Commonwealth Government had abolished the Sultanate of Sulu.
Note: The first to challenge the Maxwell & Gibson translation used by the High Court of the State of North Borneo is Francis Burton Harrison, who pointed out in 1946-47 that Chief Justice Mackaskie used the British translation of the North Borneo agree which stated that the land was ceded; he submits a different translation by Prof. Conklin, obtained through H. Otley Beyer [52]
April 4, 1940
Dayang Dayang renounces her claim against the Philippine Government over the Sultanate of Sulu[53]
World War II
Malayan Union Created
Provinces included:
Federated Malayan States
Unfederated Malayan States (Johor, Kedah, Kalantan, Perils, Terengganu)
June 18, 1946
American attorneys representing the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu denounce British action of annexation of North Borneo calling it an unauthorized act of agression.[55]
June 26, 1946
British North Borneo Company cedes colony to the Crown. Thus, annexing North Borneo to the British Empire.[56]
July 4, 1946
Inauguration of the Third Philippine Republic
July 10 (or 16), 1946
September 26, 1946
Presidential Adviser on Foreign Affairs, Francis Burton Harrison, writes a recommendation to the Department of Foreign Affairs that the Philippines should launch a protest against Britain’s annexation.
Francis Burton Harrison was former American Governor-General of the Philippines. He became a Filipino Citizen in 1936 and was an advisor on Foreign Affairs to President Manuel Roxas.[58]
December 8, 1946
Francis Burton Harrison writes a second memorandum on the government of the Sultanate of Sulu.
In the memorandum, Francis Burton Harrison mentions that he asked a Professor Otley Beyer to translate the original lease of North Borneo. Beyer translates it as the land being Leased and not as ceded.[59]
February 27, 1947
The action of the British Government in announcing on the 16th of July (1946), just 12 days after the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines, a step taken by the British Government unilaterally, and without any special notice to the Sultanate of Sulu, nor consideration of their legal rights, was an act of political aggression, which should be promptly repudiated by the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. The proposal to lay this case before the United Nations should bring the whole matter before the bar of world opinion.[60]
January 31, 1948
The Federation of Malaya was created
Malay States became British Protectorates.
Malacca and Penang remained as British Colonies.[61]
Sultan Esmail Kiram assumes the throne until his death in 1974.
April 28, 1950
House of Representatives approved Concurrent Resolution No. 42 expressing the “sense of the Congress of the Philippines that North Borneo belongs to the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu and the ultimate sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines and authorizing the President (Elpidio Quirino) to conduct negotiations for the restoration of such ownership and sovereign jurisdiction over said territory.” The Senate did not approve the Resolution.
Reps. Macapagal (Pampanga), Rasul (Mindanao and Sulu), Escarreal (Samar), Cases (La Union), Tizon (Samar), Tolentino (Manila), and Lacson (Manila) author the Resolution. [62]
September 4, 1950
Philippines advised British Government that a dispute regarding ownership and sovereignty over North Borneo existed between the two countries.[63]
August 30, 1955
Vice President Carlos P. Garcia and the British Ambassador to Manila signed an agreement that provided for the employment and settlement of 5,000 skilled and unskilled Filipino agriculturists and miners in North Borneo
Agreement not implemented as North Borneo employers feared multiple suits arising from claims of Filipino laborers: they had found a sizable number of Indonesians willing to work on a temporary basis[64]
January 1957
Governor of North Borneo visits Manila to implement the 1955 labor treaty.
500-man delegation of Filipino Muslims present resolution to President Ramon Magsaysay calling for direct negotiations with the British to return North Borneo to the Philippines. Magsaysay did not act on the resolution.
British response: United Kingdom High Commissioner for Southeast Asia said it would not take seriously the demands of Moros in the Philippines for certain areas of North Borneo.[65]
July 31, 1957
The Federation of Malaya Act was signed.
The Federation of Malaya was established as a sovereign country within the British Commonwealth. [66]
November 25, 1957
Muhammad Esmail Kiram, Sultan of Sulu, issued a proclamation declaring the termination of the Overbeck and Dent lease, effective January 22, 1958.
“A syndicate headed by Nicasio Osmeña acting as attorney-in-fact for the heirs, attempted without success to negotiate with the British Foreign Office for a lump sum payment of $15 million in full settlement of the lease agreement.”[68]
August 31, 1957
Peninsular Malaya granted independence by Britain[69]
May 27, 1961
Inclusion of North Borneo (Sabah) in the concept of Malaysia after the UK talks
It was during this time when then President Diosdado Macapagal was forced to initiate the filing of the Philippine claim in North Borneo (Sabah) as it was being considered as a member of the proposed concept of Malaysia broached by Prime Minister Tengku Abduk Rahman in Singapore [70]
February 5, 1962
Attorneys of the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu wrote to the Department of Foreign Affairs with the desire to have the territory included as part of the national territory of the Republic of the Philippines;
Ortiz: J.C. Orendain, acting as counsel for the heirs – regain proprietary rights to North Borneo and that sovereignty be turned over to the Philippine Republic[71]
April 24, 1962
Heirs of the Sultan of Sulu ceded sovereignty rights over Sabah to the Philippine Government[72]
Resolution No. 321 unanimously adopted by House of Representatives, urging President Macapagal to take the necessary steps for the recovery of North Borneo (Sabah).
Filed by Rep. Godofredo Ramos (Aklan) the resolution read: “It is the sense of the House of Representatives that the claim to North Borneo is legal and valid.”
April 25, 1962
President Macapagal called Sultan Mohammad Esmail Kiram to Malacañan Palace to discuss the Philippine Claim on North Borneo.[73]
Acceptance by the Republic of the Philippines, represented by Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs Salvador P. Lopez of the cession and transfer of territory of North Borneo[74]
April 29, 1962
Ruma Bechara advised Sultan Esmail Kiram to cede to the Republic of the Philippines the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory, without prejudice to such proprietary rights as the heirs of Sultan Jamalul Kiram may have.[75]
May 25, 1962
British Government sends a note to the Philippines asserting its claim on Sabah; says no dispute on sovereignty and ownership of Sabah.
Note is sent by British Ambassador to the Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Emmanuel Pelaez.[76]
June 22, 1962
Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Salvador P. Lopez, handed a note to the British Ambassador to Manila asserting the Philippine claim on North Borneo.
In implementation of House Resolution 321.[77]
August 7, 1962
British Government reply to June 22, 1962 note of Philippines again asserting its sovereignty over Sabah
August 29, 1962
Resolution of the Ruma Bechara of Sulu authorizing the Sultan in council to transfer his title and sovereignty over the inhabitants and territory of North Borneo to the Republic of the Philippines
September 11, 1962
President Diosdado Macapagal issues special authorization in favor of Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez to formally accept, on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines, the cession or transfer of sovereignty over the territory of North Borneo by Sultan Mohammad Esmail Kiram, Sultan of Sulu.[79]
September 12, 1962
Heirs of the Sultan of Sulu cede all rights, proprietary, title, dominion and sovereignty to the Republic of the Philippines
Secretary of Foreign Affairs sends Note to British Ambassador asserting that the Philippine claim subsists despite the London agreements including North Borneo in the Federation of Malaysia[80]
September 27, 1962
Vice-President Emmanuel Pelaez addresses the United Nations General Assembly
We stand on what we consider to be valid legal and historical grounds. Our claim has been put forward with sincere assurance of our desire that the issue be settled by peaceful means, and without prejudice to the exercise of the right of self-determination by the inhabitants of North Borneo, preferably under United Nations auspices.[81]
December 29, 1962
The Philippine and British Governments being vitally concerned in the security and stability of South East Asia, have decided to hold conversations about questions and problems of mutual interest. The British Government have responded to the Philippine Government’s desire for talks, first expressed in their note of June 22, by inviting the Philippine Government to send a delegation to London for consultations at a mutually convenient date in January, 1963. Recent developments have made such conversations, in the spirit of the Manila Treaty (SEATO) and the Pacific Charter (U.N.), highly desirable.[82]
January 26, 1963
Indonesian President Sukarno pledges support to the Philippines[83] January 28, 1963
The situation is that the Philippines not only has a valid and historic claim to North Borneo. In addition, the pursuit of the claim is itself vital to our national security.[84]
January 28 – February 1, 1963
Talks between British and Philippine Governments held in London. See Opening Statement by Vice-President Pelaez.
Philippines panel composed of Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Pelaez, Usec. Salvador P. Lopez, Defense Secretary Macario Peralta, Justice Secretary Juan Liwag, Senator Raul Manglapus, Rep. Jovito Salonga and Godofredo Ramos, and Amb. Eduardo Quintero.[85]
February 1, 1963
Joint Final Communique issued by the Philippines and the United Kingdom stating both their claims[86]
March 25, 1963
Senator Sumulong dissented to the filing of the Philippine claim to Sabah. Suggested voluntarily relinquishing whatever claims of sovereignty.
Sumulong says the claim was “tardily presented to the United Nations.” He pointed out that our claim did not specify the particular portion of North Borneo covered by it.[87]
March 30, 1963
Rep. Salonga (Rizal) responds to Senator Sumulong
Claim is of the entire Republic based on respect for the rule of law, the sanctity of contractual obligations, the sacredness of facts, and the relentless logic of our situation in this part of the world.[88]
June 7 – 11, 1963
Discussion between the foreign affairs secretaries of the Federation of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
The meeting resulted in the drafting of the Manila Accord.[89]
July 9, 1963
Malaysia Agreement was signed.
Article I provided for the creation of the Federation of Malaysia which included the colonies of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak.[90]
July 30 – August 5, 1963
MAPHILINDO (Malaya, Philippines, Indonesia) is formed, a loose consultative body among the three countries.
July 31, 1963
Manila Accord is signed
Indonesia, the Federation of Malaya, and the Philippines sign a policy statement agreeing to peacefully resolve the issue on North Borneo.
Ministers of the country agree to the creation of Malaysia with the support of the people of North Borneo to be ascertained by an independent body. (UN Secretary General)[91]
August 5, 1963
Joint Statement by the Philippines, the Federation of Malaya, and Indonesia
The United Nations Secretary-General or his representative should ascertain prior to the establishment of the Federation of Malaysia the wishes of the people of Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak within the context of General Assembly
A joint communiqué was issued by the foreign ministers of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines stating that the inclusion of North Borneo in the Federation of Malaysia “would not prejudice either the Philippine claim or any right thereunder.”[92]
August 5, 1963
Foreign Affairs Secretary Salvador P. Lopez tries to get British Government to enter into a special arrangement to refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice[93]
September 9, 1963
British reply, “in view of the July 9 Agreement signed by Britain, Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore concerning establishment of the Federation of Malaysia.”[94]
September 16, 1963
Federation of Malaysia came into being as a sovereign state, with North Borneo as one of the component states.
Since the new State of Malaysia succeeded to the interests of the British Crown in Sabah, the Philippine claim had to be pursued against Malaysia.[95]
President Diosdado Macapagal, after conferring with congressional leaders and foreign policy advisers, decided to withhold recognition of the federation until the Philippines gets formal assurances that the new Malaysia would uphold the Manila accord.[96]
September 17, 1963
Philippines refused to recognize Malaysia.
Both the Philippines and Indonesia rejected the UN findings and broke off diplomatic relations with Kuala Lumpur.[97]
Referendum is conducted in North Borneo. People of North Borneo choose to join Malaysia[98]
January 11, 1964
Sukarno-Macapagal Joint Statement[99]
February 5 – 10, 1964
Attempts of allies (including the U.S.A.) to mediate among the three MAPHILINDO countries result in a series of talks in Bangkok[100]
February 1964
Macapagal and Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Raman met in Phnom Penh. As a result, Tunku agreed to elevate the Sabah dispute to the World Court if he could get the Sabah leaders to go along.[101]
March 3-6, 1964
Attempts of allies (including the U.S.A.) to mediate among the three MAPHILINDO countries result in a series of talks in Tokyo[102]
May 18, 1964
Establishment of Philippine-Malaysia Diplomatic Relations by the creation of a Consulate in Kuala Lumpur.
November 19, 1964
A proposal was made by the Philippines to submit the dispute to the International Court of Justice as a token of their adherence to the rule of law and the UN Charter.[103]
August 9, 1965
Singapore is expelled from the Federation of Malaysia
June 3, 1966
Malaysia reiterates its willingness to abide by the Manila Accord and the Joint Statement of August 5, 1963[104]
Plan to destabilize North Borneo (Sabah) was made by President Ferdinand Marcos.
August 8, 1967
Establishment of ASEAN[105]
August – December 1967
The Jabidah unit trains for their mission to destabilize North Borneo (Sabah)
December 30, 1967
135 of the 180 trainees of Jabidah are brought to Corregidor for “Special Training”
March 18, 1968
Jabidah Massacre
March 28, 1968
Jabidah Expose in a privilege speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. March 27, 1968
Constancio B. Maglana delivered a privilege speech in the House of Representatives on the Philippine claim on Sabah
Constancio B. Maglana, a member of the House of Representatives published Sabah is Philippines (1969), and in a privilege speech, apart from laying the basis for the Philippine claim, also advocated the prosecution of the claim. [106]
March 29,1968
Senate Minority Floor Leader Ambrosio Padilla reveals a document dated February 1, 1968, which was a power of attorney executed by the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu in favor of President Marcos, recognizing the authority and power of the President to represent them in the settlement of their proprietary rights over Sabah.[107]
Press Secretary Jose Aspiras announced that the authority had been given to the President as Chief Executive[108]
Malacañang released another document, also dated February 1, 1968, in which the President Ferdinand Marcos transferred to Foreign Affairs Secretary Narciso Ramos, in his official capacity, the authority conferred by the heirs of the President.[109]
June 17, 1968
Talks between the Philippines and Malaysia opened in Bangkok
Philippine panel composition: Ambassador Gauttier Bisnar, Amb. Eduardo Quintero, Dr. Florentino Feliciano,
Amb. Leon Ma. Guerrero and Amb. Mauro Caluigo
(Philippine Ambassador to Malaysia)
Delegation’s Term of Reference: Only one mode of settlement – elevating the dispute to the World Court.[110]
July 15, 1968
Malaysia rejects Philippine claim.
The position of my Government is that the Philippines has no claim at all, that there is nothing to settle, and that there is nothing more to talk about.[111]
July 16, 1968
Amb. Guerrero responds to Malaysian rejection
Says the Malaysian Ambassador’s “unipersonal rejection” has “single-handedly brought our two countries to the most serious crisis in their relations.”[112]
July 20, 1968
Upon advice of the Foreign Policy Council, President Ferdinand E. Marcos breaks diplomatic relations with Malaysia[113]
July 21, 1968
President Ferdinand E. Marcos issued a policy statements about the Philippine claim
In radio-television chat, a day after the withdrawal of diplomatic corps in Kuala Lumpur, President Ferdinand E. Marcos, reiterated the Philippine government pacific policy in its efforts to pursue the claim and advocated the recourse to filing the case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ).[114]
August 28, 1968
Congress approves Senate Bill No. 954 that delinates the baselines of the Philippines and provides that “the territory of Sabah, situated in North Borneo, over which the Republic of the Philippines has acquired dominion and sovereignty.”
Sent to the President for approval.[115]
Admiral Michael Carver, Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the Far East said his troops, ships and planes “stand squarely behind Malaysia in the growing crises with the Philippines over Northern Sabah.”[116]
September 18, 1968
Upon the recommendation of the Foreign Policy Council, President Marcos signs Senate Bill No. 954. It became Republic Act No. 5446.[117]
US State Department Press Officer Robert J. McCloskey said the U.S. recognized the ownership of Malaysia over Sabah
Senator Roy: “a sneak betrayal of a friend and ally.”
Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr: disappointment over Washington’s “shabby and painful treatment” of the Philippines.
Senator Ziga: U.S. action would make it lose friends in the Philippines[118]
Marcos called U.S. Ambassador R.G. Mennen Williams and secured assurance that U.S. would abide by her treaty commitment to defend the Philippines in case of British or Malaysian attack.
1,000 students from the University of Malaya invaded the compound of the Philippine embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
They stoned the building, pulled down the Philippine flag from its pole and trampled upon it[119]
October 15, 1968
23rd Session of the UN General Assembly, the Philippines and Malaysia tangled in a debate on the North Borneo (Sabah) Issue
PHL policy statement: bring issue up to World Court, consistent with the Manila Accord agreement
Malaysia policy statement: the people of Sabah had shown their desire to be with the Federation of Malaysia; upheld the British title to Sabah based on, “continuous occupation, administration and exercise of sovereignty, which by itself in international law, is sufficient as a good title;” there is no Philippine claim therefore nothing to discuss.[120]
December 1968
Malaysia proposed that the Philippines recognize her sovereignty over Sabah as a condition for the normalization of Philippine-Malaysian diplomatic relations, without prejudice to the Philippines pursuing her claim.[121]
January 22, 1969
President Ferdinand E. Marcos declares in SONA: Philippine claim to North Borneo is justified based on legal, historical, and moral grounds:
We will pursue the claim peacefully in keeping with the spirit of previous understandings with Malaysia and in accordance with the principles of national law. The claim is in the national interest and we intend to pursue it by making use of all available peaceful resources. We are encouraged by the fact that many of our Asian friends are helping in the search for a modus vivendi between the Philippines and Malaysia.
December 1969
Diplomatic relations between Malaysia and the Philippines formally resume as a result of a discussion between PM Tunku Abdul Rahman and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo.
September 23, 1972
Martial Law is declared
October 24, 1972
Moro National Liberation Front begins rebellion against the government
1973 Constitution
The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all the other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic or legal title, including the territorial sea, the air space, the subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular shelves, and the submarine areas over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.
Mahakuttah Kiram becomes Sultan in 1974, after the death of his father, Sultan Esmail Kiram I. He rules until his death in 1986.
May 10, 1974
Creating a committee to handle the confirmation of the Sultan of Sulu by the Ruma Bechara
May 13, 1974
Creating a Consultative Council on Muslim Affairs
December 23, 1976
Tripoli agreement is signed
August 4, 1977
President Ferdinand E. Marcos gives up claim to Sabah. At this point in Marcos’ Presidency, a legislature has not yet been convened, therefore, President Marcos exercised full authority over Foreign Affairs policy.
In a speech Marcos said:
The Philippine government is taking definite steps to eliminate one of the burdens of ASEAN — the Philippine claim to Sabah.[122]
After the statement, Marcos handed draft of the “Border Crossing and Joint Patrol Agreement” to Malaysia. It was not signed.[123]
Malaysians asked two things of the Philippines:
1) 1973 Constitution with its broad definition of our national territory be amended in order to eliminate the clause, “territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right or legal title.”
2) That R.A. 5446, particularly Section 2, be repealed.[124]
June 25, 1980
At the ASEAN Foreign Ministers Conference in Kuala Lumpur, MP Arturo Tolentino declared that the Philippine claim to Sabah “…is closed. We are not raising it anymore.”[125]
Three rounds of talks between Manila and Kuala Lumpur  break down with Malaysia objecting to quid pro quo approach of the Philippines.
Usec. of Foreign Affairs Pacifico Castro and Tan Sri Zainal meet intermittently in Manila and Kuala Lumpur.[126]
Secret talks between Minister Roberto V. Ongpin and Malaysian PM Mahathir.[127]
November 1982
Malaysian foreign ministry said, “Just a verbal announcement of the Philippines that it has dropped the claim is not enough. The Philippines has not taken all the necessary steps to delete a clause in its Constitution laying claim to Sabah.”[128]
PM Mahathir reiterated need for PHL to drop claim in a brief interview after speaking before the ASEAN Law Association general assembly at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur.
He said claim  remained a “thorny problem” even though the Philippines is not actively pursuing it.[129]
May 1, 1986
Vice President and Minister for Foreign Affairs Salvador H. Laurel meets with PM Mahathir and Foreign Minister Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen in Kuala Lumpur
Mahatir reiterated commitment to settle proprietary issue of the heirs of the Sultan when they could agree on a single spokesperson with whom the Malaysian government could deal.
June 1986
ASEAN Foreign Ministers meeting in Manila
Usec. of Foreign Affairs Jose D. Ingles and Sec. Gen. of Malaysian Foreign Ministry continue discussion of Sabah question.[130]
July 3, 1986
Debates of the Constitutional Commission
Draft proposed by Fr. Joaquin Bernas,S.J., removes “Historical right or legal title” from the National Territory section of the Constitution and replacing it with, “Over which the Government exercises Sovereignty and Jurisdiction”
Commissioner Serafin Guingona objects to this proposal saying it might be interpreted as a dropping of our claim to Sabah.
Bernas says this was in order to adhere to generally accepted principles of international law.
July 7, 1986
Debates of the Constitutional Commission
On second Reading the provision of National Territory which states “Over which the Government exercises Sovereign Jurisdiction” is approved.
July 9, 1986
Debates of the Constitutional Commission
On Third Reading the provision of National Territory which states “Over which the Government exercises Sovereign Jurisdiction” is lost.
July 10, 1986
Debates of the Constitutional Commission
Concepcion objects to the proposed section on National Territory thus bringing it back to Second Reading.
Bernas proposes to change the word Exercises to has.
The Provision is approved.
February 16, 1987
1987 Constitution comes into full force and effect, in fulfilment of the first stipulation of the Malaysians.
The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.
February 20, 1987
Series of meetings between Usec. of Foreign Affairs Jose D. Ingles and Tan Sri Zainal held further talks in Kuala Lumpur
Usec. of Foreign Affairs Jose D. Ingles and Sec. Gen. of Malaysian Foreign Ministry continue discussion of Sabah question.[131]
June 27, 1987
Series of meetings between Usec. of Foreign Affairs Jose D. Ingles  and Tan Sri Zainal held further talks in Hong Kong
Usec. of Foreign Affairs Jose D. Ingles and Sec. Gen. of Malaysian Foreign Ministry continue discussion of Sabah question. Philippines agreed to adopt new baseline law: Malaysians proposed agreements on border crossing, extradition, Treaty of Friendship, and establishment of consulates.[132]
October 23, 1987
Upon instructions from President Corazon C. Aquino, Secretary of Foreign Affairs Raul S. Manglapus tries to unify the heirs to the sultanate.
Letter of Manglapus to Senator Santanina Rasul:
I would like to suggest that the claimants organize themselves so that they may arrive at a common position…. Although yours is a private claim, we have the assurance of the Malaysian government that they are ready and willing to negotiate with the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu in order to settle this matter.
Senator Rasul successfully brings the heirs to Malacañan Palace and appoint representatives. However, talks were stalled when Jamalul III dissented.[133]
November 19, 1987
Senator Leticia Ramos-Shahani files Senate Bill no. 206 to repeal R.A. No. 5446. Says a package of bilateral treaties agreements on amity and economic cooperation, extradition, and border-crossing and patrols, are part of a package deal offered in exchange for the dropping of the Sabah claim.
Certified urgent by President Corazon C. Aquino but faced stiff opposition. It was not passed in the 8th Congress.[134]
December 4-6, 1987
President Corazon C. Aquino and Secretary Raul S. Manglapus met with the heirs without Jamalul Kiram III
Brief from the meeting:
They were of the opinion that Sultan Mohamad Jamalul Kiram III was expressing his own personal views which contravene the consensus reached at the meeting of the heirs with Secretary… Manglapus at the PICC on Friday, December 4 and at the conference of the heirs held with President Corazon C. Aquino at Malacañang on Saturday, December 5.[135]
August 28, 1988
Former Senator Arturo Tolentino opposed the Shahani Bill as it would drop Sabah claim.[136]
February 12, 1989
Sultan Mohammad Jamalal Kiram III(one of the claimnants to the throne) revoked the resolution of August 1962 regarding the transfer of title and sovereignty to the Republic of the Philippines.[137]
January 11, 1993
President Fidel V. Ramos issues Executive Order No. 46 creating the Bipartisan Executive-Legislative Advisory Council on the Sabah Issues
January 27 – 30, 1993
President Fidel V. Ramos state visit to Malaysia.
President Fidel V. Ramos makes proposal, Malaysia agrees to set up a consulate in Sabah and Davao, respectively. Downplays North Borneo issue despite calls from members of Congress to pursue claim.
February 10, 1993
President Fidel V. Ramos attempts to unify the heirs to the Sultanate.
President Ramos suggested that to the representatives of the heirs that they create a corporation called the Sulu-Sabah Development Corporation. The entity would be the conduit of funds from the settlement of the proprietary claim over Sabah.[138]
July 1993
The Philippines and Malaysia sign MOU on Joint Commission on Bilateral Cooperation
December 6-10, 1993
1st PH-Malaysia Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation
The Meeting discussed the reciprocal establishment of Consular Offices in the Philippines and Malaysia.
The Philippine delegation stated that the Philippine Government was still considering possible sites for the establishment of a Consulate in East Malaysia
The Malaysian Delegation informed that Malaysia wishes to establish a consulate in southern Philippines. The Philippine Delegation welcomed the Malaysian proposal. The Philippine Delegation indicated that the Philippines is considering possible sites for a consular office in East Malaysia[139]
March 26, 1994
President Fidel V. Ramos proposes creation of BIMP-EAGA (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines-East ASEAN Growth Area)
1995, 10th Congress
HB 2657 – “The Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone Act of 1995”[140]
Introduced by Rep. Manuel B. Villar, Jr.
March 28 – 29, 1995
2nd PH-Malaysia Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation
The Malaysian side stated that the Malaysian Government has decided to establish a Consulate General in Davao City. A formal notification would be made to the Philippine Government and plans are for the Consulate to be set up in May/June 1995.”
The Philippine side welcomed the decision of the Malaysian Government and assured the Philippine Government’s full cooperation in the establishment of the Malaysian Consulate in Davao City. The Philippine side that the Philippine Government has yet to decide on the location of its Consulate in east Malaysia.[141]
Philippine and Malaysian governments agree to setup a consulate in Sabah and Davao, respectively. Malaysia setup a consulate in Davao in December but the Philippines did not push through.[142]
May 29 – 31, 1995
3rd PH-Malaysia Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation (JCBC)
The Meeting agreed on the need to hold regular informal consultations between the relevant agencies of the two sides to resolve any outstanding problem pertaining to Filipino workers and illegal immigrants[143]
Opening Remarks by Datuk Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia for the 3rd PH-Malaysia Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation (JCBC)
Regulating the Flow of People and Goods:
….The Armed Forces and Police of our respective countries have already concluded a historic joint patrol exercise designed to curb piracy, illegal entry and illegal fishing in the territorial waters of the two countries. A working group between our two countries had recently met in Sabah to deal with border crossing matters. This is an important development which will contribute to facilitating and regulating the flow of people and goods at the border areas of East Malaysia and Southern Philippines…..[144]
Princess Denchurain Kiram writes Prime Minister Mahatir of Malaysia asking to increase the rental $1,000,000. She also said that she is willing to renounce the claim if the Malaysian Government provide a fair settlement.
Proposal was refused by the Prime Minister.[145]
September 2, 1996
Peace agreement MNLF
December 1996
Border Crossing and Joint Patrol agreements signed by the Philippines and Malaysia.
1998, 11th Congress
HB 2973 – “Archipelagic Baselines Law of the Philippines”
Introduced by Hon. J. Apolinario L. Lozada, Jr.[146]
July 5, 1999
Executive Order No. 117 reconstituted  the Bipartisan Executive-Legislative Advisory Council on the Sabah Issues
12th Congress
HB 2031 (HB 2973 re-filed)
Introduced by Hon. J. Apolinario L. Lozada, Jr.[147]
March 1-3, 2000
4th Malaysia-PH Joint Commission for Bilateral Cooperation
Establishment of a Consulate in Sabah:
The Meeting noted Philippines’ commitment towards the establishment of a Philippine Consulate in Sabah.[148]
January 2001
Sultan Esmail Kiram II writes Prime Minister Mahathir, through President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo to increase the lease fee to $855 million per annum[149]
February 2001
PHL files for Application to Gain Access to the Pleadings at the International Court of Justice hearing on the Ligitan-Sipadan islands dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia in order “to preserve and safeguard its historical and legal rights arising from its claim to sovereignty and dominion over the territory of North Borneo.”
March 13, 2001
PHL petitions ICJ to intervene in territorial dispute over Sipadan and Ligitan islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
March 14, 2001
Malaysian authorities reportedly expressed willingness to buy Sabah for US $800 M
Deal supposedly initiated by heirs of the Sultan of Sulu through legal counsel Ulka Ulama[150]
August 9, 2001
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, upon her return from a state visit to Malaysia, asks Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Teofisto Guingona to set up an economic and cultural office in Sabah.
Office would be similar to Manila Economic and Cultural Office in Taiwan[151]
October 24, 2001
ICJ denies application of Philippines for intervention.
November 2001
ARMM Governor Nur Misuari ordered his troops  to wage rebellion. He escapes to Malaysia. Malaysian government extradites him back to the Philippines
Misuari, ARMM Governor since 1996, tried to lobby for an extension of his term set to expire in 2002. Failing, he ordered the Moro National Liberation Front to rebel in Jolo. It is crushed.[152]
Some of the heirs meet in Malacañan Palace at the invitation of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
According to the article, Jamalul Kiram III was recognized as the Sultan. President Arroyo sent the letter asking for the adjustment of rent to Sabah to the Malaysian Prime Minister[153]
September 6, 2002
Executive Order No. 121 again reconstituted  the Bipartisan Executive-Legislative Advisory Council on the Sabah Issues
September 19, 2002
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assures heirs of Sultan of Sulu that they are protected.
August 2002
Reports of “heavy-handed” of Filipino deportees spark diplomatic protest from Manila.
Philippine lawmakers support revival of claim.
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo urges officials and the public to separate territorial dispute from issue of Filipino deportees.
13th Congress
HB  1973 – An act defining the archipelagic baselines of the Philippine archipelago to include the Kalayaan Island Group and to conform with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 3046, as amended by Republic Act No. 5446.
Introduced by Hon. Antonio V. Cuenco[154]
HB 6087 – An act defining the archipelagic baselines of the Philippine archipelago, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 3046, as amended by Republic Act No. 5446.
Introduced by the Hons. Antonio V. Cuenco, Edgardo M. Chatto, Carmen L. Cari, Jose G. Solis and Roilo S. Golez[155]
July 14-16, 2004
JCBC discusses Filipino workers in Sabah and proposes Philippines set up a consulate in Sabah.
The Malaysian side requested the Philippine side to establish a Consulate in Sabah as soon as possible. The Philippine side reiterated the government’s commitment on this matter.[156]
September 14, 2004
Executive Order No. 357 The Bipartisan Executive-Legislative Advisory Council on the Sabah Issues was abolished and its functions transferred to DFA
September 2005
Group calling itself the “Royal Sultanate of Sulu Archipelago’s Supreme Council” warned Malaysian government not to entertain claims forwarded to it by so-called Sultan Rodinood Julaspi Kiram regarding the resolution of the North Borneo territorial issue.
April 27-28 2006
Closing Statement of Malaysian Foreign Minister Dato’ Seri Syed Hamid Albar at the 6th Malaysia-PH Joint Commission Meeting
Malaysian Foreign Minister Dato’ Seri Syed Hamid Albar, in his closing statement during the 6th Malaysia-PH Joint Commission Meeting  in Kuala Lumpur, asked Secretary Alberto G. Romulo to jointly “find ways to bring a final conclusion to the long due bilateral matters, namely the displaced people in Sabah and the setting up of the Philippine Consulate General in Kota Kinabalu.”[157]
June 3,  2006
Mohammad Fuad Abdulla Kiram I was proclaimed 35th Sultan of the Royal Hashimite Sultanate of Sulu and Sabah with a backing of the Moro National Liberation Front.
May 2007
Jamalul Kiram III runs unsuccessfully for Senator under Partido Demokratikong Sosyalista ng Pilipinas (PDSP), receiving over two million votes. PDSP coalesces with President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s Lakas-CMD and KAMPI to form TEAM Unity. Administration coalition is crushed in the polls with only two of its bets winning, the other 10 seats are won by the opposition.
14th Congress
HB 1202[158]
Introduced by Hon. Antonio V. Cuenco
May 29, 2008
Nur Misuari called for the revival of North Borneo claim in Second Mindanao Leadership Summit attended by MNLF combatants
Strong reaction from Datuk Seri Panglima Yong Teck Lee, President of the Sabah Progressive Party urging Malaysia’s Federal Government to bring in military, set up consulates in Mindanao and invite PHL to set up consulate in Sabah
July 9, 2008
“Sultanate of Sulu” reportedly starts issuing birth certificates to Filipinos in Sabah
July 27, 2008
Datu Omar negotiator of Mohammad Jamal Al Alam heirs was quoted “obtained signatures of nine heirs relinquishing claims to Sabah” but these are denied by claimants
Uka Ulama claimed that nobody has the power to drop the claim because there is no more Sultan who reigns and rules over the territory.
August 10, 2008
Sulu provincial government tells Malaysia to Increase annual payment to Jamalul Kiram III to $500M[159]
August 20, 2008
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issues Memorandum Circular No. 162 or “Guidelines on matters pertaining to North Borneo (Sabah)”
No recognition of a foreign state’s sovereignty over North Borneo; any official activity relating to North Borneo carried out only with the clearance of or after consultations with DFA
March 10, 2009
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signs R.A. 9522, amending R.A. 5446
In fulfilment of the second Malaysian stipulation, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo removes mention of Sabah or North Borneo in the Archipelagic Baselines of the Philippines law
Nur Misuari issued a statement calling the attention of Malaysia to settle the Sabah issue.[160]
June 2010
Sulu provincial board passed a resolution supporting the demand of heirs to increase the yearly payment to at least $500 Million. [161]
July 16, 2011
Supreme Court decision (GR No. 187167) upholds the baseline law
In its decision, the Supreme Court makes a conclusion of law: that R.A. 9522 did not repeal R.A. 5466, and that therefore, the Philippine claim over Sabah is retained and can be pursued. However, since this is a conclusion of law, the Supreme Court made its conclusion of law without explaining the reasons for its conclusion. It makes the decision, however, binding on the government.
April 24-27, 2012
Visit to the Philippines of Malaysian House Speaker Pandikar Amin Haji Mulia
Malaysian House Speaker Pandikar Amin Haji Mulia raised the matter of the opening of a consulate during his call on President Benigno S. Aquino III, who, in response, instructed the Secretary of Foreign Affairs to study the proposal.[162] June 5, 2012
Upon returning from a visit to Malaysia, Vice-President Binay says he will recommend to the President the setting up of a Philippine Consulate in Sabah.  (
February 12, 2013
Followers of Jamalul Kiram numbering over 200 men landed in Laha Datu village in Sabah on February 12, 2013.[163]

Fully copied from 


1878 Agreement

On 22 January 1878, an agreement was signed between the Sultanate of Sulu and British commercial syndicate (Alfred Dent and Baron von Overback), which stipulated that North Borneo was either ceded or leased (depending on translation used) to the British syndicate in return for payment of 5000 Malayan Dollar per year.[3][4] On 22 April 1903 His Majesty Sultan Jamalul Kiram signed a document known as "Confirmation of cession of certain islands", under what he either "grant and ceded" or "leased" additional islands in the neighbourhood of the mainland of North Borneo from Banggi Island to Sibuku Bay to British North Borneo Company. The sum 5,000 dollars a year payable every year increased to 5,300 dollars a year payable every year.

British version
... hereby grant and cede of our own free and sovereign will to Gustavus Baron de Overbeck of Hong Kong and Alfred Dent Esquire of London...and assigns for ever and in perpetuity all the rights and powers belonging to us over all the territories and lands being tritutary to us on the mainland of the island of Borneo commencing from the Pandassan River on the north-west coast and extending along the whole east coast as far as the Sibuco River in the south and comprising amongst other the States of Paitan, Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, Sandakan, Kina Batangan, Mumiang, and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco river with all the islands within three marine leagues of the coast.[5]

Sulu version hereby lease of our own freewill and satisfaction to...all the territories and lands being tributary to [us] together with their heirs, associates, successors and assigns forever and until the end of time, all rights and powers which we possess over all territories and lads tributary to us on the mainland of the Island of Borneo, commencing from the Pandassan River on the west coast to Maludu Bay, and extending along the whole east coast as far as Sibuco River on the south,..., and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco River, ..., [9 nautical miles] of the coast."[6]

The key word in both the agreements was "padjak", which has been translated by American, Dutch and Spanish linguists to mean "lease" or "arrendamiento". The British nevertheless takes the word "padjak" to mean "grant and cede".[5] It can be argued however, that "padjak" means "mortgage" or "pawn" or even "wholesale", as per the contemporary meaning of "padjak" in Sulu.[7][8]

Every year, the Malaysian Embassy in the Philippines issues a check in the amount of 5,300 ringgit (US$1710 or about 77,000 Philippine pesos) to the legal counsel of the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu. Malaysia considers the amount an annual “cession” payment for the disputed state, while the sultan’s descendants consider it “rent.”[9][10]

The details @


Historical  Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples
By Josiah C. Ang, PM
Source:  Jolo and Sulu

The seat of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu is in Astana Putih, Tausug for “White Palace,” located some two kilometers southwest of the Spanish Walled City of Jolo, in Umbul Duwa at the present municipality of Indanan in Jolo Island. Jolo is the capital town of the Province of Sulu that is within the present geographical jurisdiction of the Republic of the Philippines.


1450 AD - A Johore-born Arab adventurer, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bak=r, arrived in Sulu from Melaka; He married Param Isuli, daughter of Raja Baguinda, and founded The Royal Sultanate of Sulu in 1457; He declared himself H.R.H. Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bak=r, Sultan of Sulu, of the Saudi House of Hashemite in Hadramaut, where most Tausug and Yakan believed prophet Mohammad's genealogy is traced.

1451 AD - By this time, the Melakan Sultanate had become a leading center of Islam in southeast Asia, and as a time-tested protege of the Ming dynasty, Yung Lo sent away his daughter Hang Li-po and a cortege of five-hundred Mandarin ladies as A gift to Melakan Sultan Mansor Shah in 1459; in turn, Shah conceived "Bukit Cina" as a permanent residential court for his esteemed visitors.

H.R.H. Sultan Syed Hashem Abu Bak'r (1457-1480)

1470 AD - Muslim conquest of the Madjapahit Empire.

1473-1521 AD - Golden age rule of Nakhoda Ragam Sultan Bulkeiah=s Sultanate of Brunei that expanded her hegemony to include North Borneo, Sarawak, Indonesia Balabac, Banggi, and Palawan in Archipelago San Lazaro (present-day Philippines) and the new Royal Sultanate of Sulu

H.R.H. Sultan Kamal ud-Din (1480-1519)

1509 AD - A Bengali Putih and Diego Lopez deSequeira with a squadron of five Portuguese battle ships established the first White settlement in Melaka (Ferdinand Magellan was said to be a member of this expedition).

1511 AD - Portuguese privateer Alfonso deAlbuquerque captured Melaka from deSequeira and reported of Muslim trading vessels from Sulu anchored in that Malay port.

1512 AD - Unnamed Portuguese sailors effected a brief landing on Mindanaw.

H.R.H. Sultans Amir ul-Umara, Mu'izzul Mutawa Din & Nasir ud-Din (1519-1579)

1520 AD - Jesuit historian Francisco Combe reported of an unnamed Muslim Sharif who tried to spread Islam to Jolo but died at Bud Tumangtangis; His magnificent tomb was comparable to those in Makkah, but unfortunately in the years following, Manila Spaniards burned it to the ground.

1521 AD - Antonio Pigafetta deVicenza, the Italian chronicler of Ferdinand Magellan, was said to have visited Brunei Sultan Bulkeiah's court around this time; While crusing along the Bornean coast, fellow Spaniards captured Rajah Matanda of May Nilad, grandson of then reigning Brunei Sultan and nephew to Brunei Raja Muda (Rajah Suleiman to Filipinos). [Rajah Suleiman was himself a son-in-law of Brunei Sultan Abdul Kahar and this incident could have made unfortunate misgivings of his view of White men as he was to meet them again in the Battle of May Nilad in 1570].

March 16, 1521 AD - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, a.k.a. Fernao Magalhaes and Fernando de Magallanes, discovered Archipelago San Lazaro (present-day Samar Island) arriving on five vessels that included Trinidad (Magellan, skipper), San Antonio (Juan deCartagena), Concepcion (Gaspar deQuesada), Victoria (Luis deMondoza), and Santiago (Juan Serrano) and a total of two-hundred-sixty-four crew members.

- Magellan and his men then erected a wooden cross as testimony to their "discovery" of and claim for the Spanish Crown the Archipelago San Lazaro, named after this feast day of of Saint Lazarus (March 16).

March 18, 1521 AD - Magellan, including his wife's cousin Duarte Barbosa, cosmographer Andres de San Martin, and Pigafetta landed on an uninhabited island known as Homonhon where friendly natives from neighboring islands brought food and Atuba and together they feasted for one day.

March 24, 1521 - Moving southeast, Magellan weighed anchor for Masawa on Mindanaw Island where Masawa Rajah Kolambu was entertaining his visiting brother, Rajah Siagu of Butuan; The two Rajahs caused the first traditional blood compact of foreign visitors in which the visiting dignitary would drink each other's blood mixed with the native wine, Atuba.

- Mindanaw folklore mentioned a Pernao Magalhao to have founded this Manobo-tribeland where Rajah Siagu
was already ruling chief; Magalhao may have also Atouched at Sulu for we find Pigafetta describing the King of

April 06, 1521 - Magellan's ship-chaplain Pedro deValderrama celebrated the first Roman Catholic mass on Philippine soil at Masawa (some claims Limasawa in Leyte as the rightful place) which fortunately fell on Easter Sunday of Jubilation.

- Masawa Rajah Kolambu piloted Magellan to Cebu island where Cebu Rajah Humabon received them and
sealed yet another blood compact.

April 13,1521 - Cebu Rajah Humabon, his family, and 800 Sugboanons converted to Roman Catholicism before
Magellan and his party and immediately declared the "enemies of the church" the growing Muslimin community on Mactan island headed by Kaliph Pulaka (Lapu-Lapu to Filipinos).

April 27, 1521 - Magellan, with forty-eight men in full armor, ploughed ashore Mactan island but were stopped by poisoned arrows from men of Lapu-Lapu; The encounter is now known in Philippine history as the Battle of Mactan.

June 9, 1522 - Juan Sebastian del Cano, navigating Magellan=s only remaining vessel La Victoria with eighteen men and 533-hundredweight-cloves on board, successfully returned to Sevilla in Spain via the Tidorein Maluka (present-day Moluccas); Juan Sebastian del Cano was assigned in world history as the first man to have ever
completed the circumnavigation of the globe.

1523-1542 - Three other expeditions from Mexico attempted to reach the Philippines via the route taken by Magellan (Barbosa, de Loaisa, & de Saavedra) but never made it.

November 1, 1542 - Don Antonio de Mendoza, viceroy of Nueva Espana (present-day Mexico), sent six ships from Navida Mexico under Ruy Lopez deVillalobos that reached Sarangani islands in 1543 and named his "discovery" Las Islas Felipinas to honor the son of King Charles of Spain, Felipe II.

- deVillalobos sent for captain Bernardo delaTorre to survey the coast of Kota Bato but died there and his crew were captured in Sarangani by the Portuguese navy stationed in Maluka.

November 21, 1564 - Another Nueva Espana viceroy, Don Luis de Velasco, commissioned 54-year-old Basque adelantado Miguel Lopez deLegaspi, to subjugate Islas Felipinas after five unsuccessful attempts.

1565-1663 Fourth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

February 1565 - Legaspi arrived in Samar island on his flagship Capitana piloted by seasoned navigator-priest Andres Urdaneta who was earlier with the 1525 expedition of Fray Garcia Jofre deLoaiza [Crivelli].

April 1565 - Mooring southward to Bohol, Legaspi executed the traditional blood compact with Bohol Rajah Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala to show his sincerity of mission.

May 1565 - Legaspi effected the first Spanish settlement at Cebu with the aid of the two Bohol Rajahs after a brief combat with remnants of the Humabon-Lapulapu warriors that were later incorporated into his mercenary forces.

1568-1648 - The Spanish-Dutch War that started as an internal agitation within the Holy Roman Empire extended to the Far East for the control of the spice trade ending in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; This war despoiled Portugal of all its East India possessions and severely affected the tranquility of Moroland.

1569 - Brunei Sultan Saif ul-Raijal zealously campaigned for Quranic reading excellence among his other subjects in Sarawak, North Borneo, Palawan, and Sulu.

- Future Brunei Sultan Muhammad Hasan, whose firstborn, Rajah Bongsu Adapati of Sulu, became Sulu Sultan Mawallil Wasit, married the sister of Sultan Saiful-Raijal [Kho].

1570 - For lack of food supplies, Legaspi, who by now was appointed governor-general of the new Spanish colony, moved his seat to Capiz in Panay island; Hearing of good reports about May Nilad, with its excellent seaport and fertile boondocks, Legaspi sent for his grandson, Juan deSalcedo and forty-five able men to explore the area, unfortunately, accomplished little because of fierce resistance from forces loyal to Rajah Suleiman.

May 24, 1570 - Legaspi then sent marshall Martin Goiti, with seven-hundred Sugbuano mercenaries and 130 Spanish officers, to Lusong and stormed the May Nilad-fortress of Rajah Suleiman that left the Brunei Raja Muda with a disarrayed town, a hundred compatriots killed, and about eighty taken into captivity.

- Rajah Suleiman was at this time in Lusong to promote the Quranic reading program of Brunei Sultan Raijal; Three
other fellow Brunei royalties were in May Nilad as his adjutants that included Rajah Nicoy, Rajah Kanduli, and Rajah Lakandula, a direct descendant of Alexander the Great, legend says.

May 1571 - Legaspi himself led another invasion with twenty-seven vessels, two-hundred-eighty Spaniards and several hundred Visayan mercenaries.

June 3, 1571 - Rajah Suleiman fought fiercely but succumbed to the guns and cannons of Legaspi; Some three hundred warriors loyal to the Brunei Raja Muda perished.

- According to Nichol, Rajah Suleiman fled this bloody encounter and Brunei Annals confirmed a Raja Muda [no doubt Rajah Suleiman] to have died on this day in Brunei Darussalam after returning from a battle with the Spaniards.

June 24, 1571 - Legaspi founded May Nilad and ordered the Moro captives to built a Spanish-style walled city he called "Intra-Moros" along Ilog Pasig that became Spain=s first major structure in Asia.

August 21, 1572 - Legaspi died in this Intra-Moros walled-city which is now known as Intramuros.

1574 - According to Medina Historia, a Brunei fleet of one-hundred galleys and one-hundred Aparaws,@ manned by 8,000 warriors, attacked May Nilad to requite Rajah Suleiman=s death but in time left after an evidential Spanish reinforcement from Iloilo. [Nichol]

November 1574 - Chinese warlord Lin Tao Kien (Lim A-hong to Filipinos) attacked May Nilad but was forced by Spanish navy to retreat to Lingayen gulf where he finally settled and built his outpost at Sual.

- Jolo folklore reported of a ALimahong who set sail by the Sulu Sea, even weighing anchor at Tanjung, before this foiled attack on May Nilad.

March11, 1576 - Juan deSalcedo successfully explored the island of Lusong but died of fever at age twenty-seven.

1577 - Manila governor-general Francisco deSande sent a letter to Brunei Sultan Saif ul-Raijal to stop sending Muslim missionaries to southern Philippines.

- Brunei Annals reported of Manila Spaniards attacks on Brunei Darussalam who loosely controlled it for three years to even out Sultan Raijal's belligerent Islamic expansion to Sulu. []

H.R.H. Sultans Muhammed ul-Halim (Pangiran Budiman) (1558-1585)

June,1578 - deSande dispatched captain Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa, together with Jesuit priest Juan del Campo and Coadjutor Gaspar Gomez, to Jolo and, for the first time a European soul set foot on Sulu’s immortal soil; The visit was not long as a compromise negotiation was reached between deFigueroa’s invaders and the Tausug leaders that forced the Sulu Sultan-de-facto Mohammed ul-Halim Pangiran Buddiman to pay Sulu Sea pearls as regular tribute.

1579 - Because of this successful trip, Manila Spanish government gave deFigueroa the sole right to colonize
Mindanaw; another captain Juan Arce deSadornil conducted a brief but disastrous campaign against the Moros of North Borneo and Sulu.

December 1579 - Sir Francis Drake, tracing Magellan=s circum-navigational route westward, was careened on some islands north of Celebes Sea that cartographers believed were the Sulu archipelago group.

H.R.H. Sultan Batara Shah Tangah (Pangiran Tindig) (1585-1600)

1593 - The first permanent Catholic mission in the Moroland was established by the Jesuits in Samboangan (Sama
word for Sabuan, Adocking point) at Caldera bay (present-day Recodo).

1596 - Manila Spaniards made another war expedition to Jolo but was quashed by Rajah Bongsu, Adapati of Sulu (son of Brunei Sultan Muhammad Hassan from his Butuan wife). [Kho]

November 1596 - Manila Spanish government sent Juan Ronquillo to build fortified military garrison in Tampakan to thwart Moro raids but abandoned it the following year in order to reposition itself to Caldera bay in Zamboanga Peninsula.

1598 - Another war expedition trial was dispatched to Jolo, however, the Manila Spaniards experienced severe
drawback and returned to Manila leaving nothing to show for the visit.

H.R.H. Sultan Mawallil Wasit (Rajah Bongsu) (1600-1640)

1600 - Spanish captain Juan Gallinato raided Jolo with two-hundred men

- Panglima Abdullah of Talipao led an adventurous journey in seventy paraws that combed the southwestern coasts
from Balanguingue in Tawi-Tawi to Samboangan; Abdulla likewise attacked Christian Iloilo and burned and ransacked it.

December 31,1600 - Queen Elizabeth I of England granted the British East India Company trading privileges in Asia by virtue of Charter signed today; In 1609, King James I decreed to grant perpetuity to the Charter and, in 1688, King Charles II further granted sovereign right privileges that made repercussions in the 1878 Lease Agreement between the British East India Company and Sulu Sultan Kiram I.

1612 - Rajah Bongsu was installed sultan-de-facto of Sulu and named himself Sultan Mawallil Wasit; He appointed
Brunei Datu Acheh as his aide-de-camp because of his skills in helping unite the Sulu leaders. [Kho]

1627 - Datu Acheh, on official business in May Nilad for the Sultanate, was intercepted by Manila Spaniards on his
way home; In retaliation, Sultan Wasit led 2,000 Tausug warriors in raiding Spanish shipyards in Camarines south of May Nilad. [Ang mga Pilipino]

1628 - The Manila Spaniards returned the attack by organizing a raiding force of 200 Spanish officers and 1,600
Christian natives.

1629 - The Sultanate of Sulu sent anew another expedition under Datu Acheh to attack Spanish settlements in
Camarines, Samar, Leyte and Bohol.

March 17, 1630 - Spanish soldiers again attacked Jolo with 2,500 troops that saw the wounding of their commander Lorenzo de Olaso and retreated.

1631 - The Sulu warriors launched still another invasion, this time, targeted only on the Island of Leyte- the seat of
Spanish power in the Visayas.

1632 - Maguindanaw Sultan Kudarat married the daughter of Sulu Sultan Wasit that cemented a stronger Two-Sultanate-Alliance.

1634 - The Two-Sultanate-Alliance mobilized a 1,500-warrior-contingent and attacked Spanish-controlled settlements in Dapitan, Leyte and Bohol.

January 1635 - A Sulu Sultanate's captive named Fray Juan Batista Vilancio escaped Jolo and surfaced before Manila governor-general Don Juan Cerezo Salamanca who reported of a Moro power concentration in the Zamboanga peninsula by forces of the two Sultanates.

Aprill 6,1635 - Spanish captain Juan de Chaves was ordered to beachhead the south and established a military garrison in Samboangan, he named Bagumbayan, and became the forerunner of Ciudad de Zamboanga; This garrison in Samboangan led to the beginning of the defeat of Kudarat’s feared admiral, Datu Tagal, who had raided several pueblos in the Visayas.

June 23, 1635 - Salamanca next ordered a Jesuit-engineer-priest Melchor de Vera to lay a cornerstone for the construction of Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan (present-day Fort Pilar).

- After finishing his contract and on returning to Spain, he brought with him the impounded “Coat-of-Arms” of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu.

1636 - Datu Tagal, a brother of Kudarat, gathered a large fleet of Moro pirates from Mindanaw, Sulu, and North
Borneo and looted the coastal islands of the Visayas.

1637 - Manila governor-general Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera personally led an expedition against Kudarat and Tagal and triumphed over his forces at Lamitan and Lian.

January 4,1638 - deCorcuera again led a war expedition of eighty ships and 2,000 Spaniards to Jolo but was foiled by Sultan Wasit; however, due to an epidemic within his Acotta@ he and his datus were forced to seek refuge in Dungun Tawi-Tawi and the Spaniards freely occupied Jolo but again left in 1646 after a treaty of peace was signed between Malacanan and Sultan Nasir ud-Din. [Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan]

1638-1640 - Records had it that Sulu Sultan Wasit=s many heroic battles during this period at Bud Datu in Jolo island against the Manila Spaniards were never lucidly recorded; It was Wasit who named this hill to honor the bravery and unconditional loyalty of his datus.

H.R.H. Sultan Nasir ud-Din (1640-1658)

1640 - In Pulangi Valley in Kota Bato, the lower valley (Si Ilud) controlled by Sultan Kudarat and the upper valley (Si Raya) controlled by Rajah Buhayen together with the turf of Rajah Buhisan around Lake Lanao (the Ranao Sultanates confederation) were merged to form the Sultanate of Maguindanaw

March 25,1644 - Sulu Sultan Wasit dispatched his son Pangiran Salikula to bombard Jolo and Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan with help from Dutch navy stationed in Batavia (present-day Indonesia) that droved deCorcuera

1645 - Wasit’s persistent raids wiped out the whole Spanish garrison in Jolo

April 14,1646 - The Manila Spanish government signed a peace treaty with Sulu Sultan-de-facto Nasir ud-Din recognizing, among others, his sovereign rights to extend up to the Tawi-Tawi Group as far as Tup-Tup and Balabac islands.

- A second batch of Jesuit priests were sent to Jolo during this period and start the permanent rooting of Roman Catholicism in Sulu [Sulu Zone, Kho]
1648 - The Treaty of Munster was signed between Spain and Netherlands to respect each other=s territories; Spain to
withdraw from Maluka and the Dutch from the Zamboanga Peninsula [Sulu Zone, Kho]
1649 - Under the direct command of Sultan Nasir the Spanish garrison in Jolo was finally exterminated

H.R.H. Sultan Salah ud-Din (Karamat Baktiar) (1658-1663)

June 1658 - Brunei Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin awarded Sulu Sultan-de-facto Salah ud-Din Bakhtiar the northeast coast of Borneo, including Palawan, for helping settle a civil war dispute against Pengeran Bongsu Muhyuddin

May 6,1662 - According to records, Manila governor-general Sabiniano Manrique de Lara issued an evacuation order for Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan and called all troops to reinforce May Nilad for an imminent attack by Chinese pirate Cheng Ch=eng-kung (Koxinga), but the truth of the matter was they were driven away by Sulu warriors during these previous years and allowing the forces of Kudarat to sequester it in 1663

- Friction between the ruling royalties of Brunei and Sulu led Camucones Badjaos to shift their loyalty to the Sultan of Sulu [Kho]

H.R.H. Sultans Sahab ud-Din & Mustafa Shafi’ ud-Din (1663-1704)

1663-1718 - According to historian C.A. Majul, this is a Period of Interrregnum in which Manila Spanish government abandoned all its settlement and pretensions in Mindanao and Sulu

1667 - Jesuit historian Francisco Combe wrote the first History of Mindanaw and Sulu covering the period from 1620 to1665

1673-1690 - The reign of Brunei Sultan Pengeran Bongsu Muhyuddin saw his hegemony breaking down that eventually phased out his Sultanate’s 150-year control of the Sulu and return royal powers back to the Sulu sultans

1699 - Melaka Sultan Mahmoud Shah was murdered in Kampar Sumatra ending the colorful Melaka Malay Sultanate

1701 - Sulu Sultan Mustafa Shaif ud-Din departed for a courtesy call to the new Sultanate of Maguindanaw in
sixty-eight “paraws,” but unfortunately, guardsman Kutai misinterpreted it as an invasion who forced closed the Rio Grande in Kota Bato and embarrassed the Sulu royalties; A long and fierceful fight ensued.

1703 - Sulu Sultan Shaif bestowed Palawan upon Mindanaw Sultan Kudarat but which same piece of land was ceded anew to the Manila Spanish government in 1705

H.R.H. Sultan Badar ud-Din I (1704-1734)

1717 - Sulu Sultan Badar ud-Din sent an emissary to Imperial China to enlist her support for military assistance; A
similar request was duplicated in 1733

1718-1772 Fifth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

1718 - Moro wars were resized when Manila governor-general Juan Antonio dela Torre Bustamante resolved to
reconstruct Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan, and added to each corner sides citadels embossing the names of Catholic saints San Luis, San Francisco Xavier, San Felipe, and San Fernando

- The fort was renamed Real Fuerza del Pilar deZaragosa perpetuating the name of the Manila-Acapulco galleon ship that sunk off Guam early that year and also renamed Bagumbayan to Ciudad deZamboanga

1719 - Manila Spanish government dispatched a group of AChavacano-speaking@ Merdicans to Ciudad
deZamboanga (The Merdicans originally were brought in from Ternate and Tidore in the Celebes in 1663)

April 16,1719 - Don Fernando Bustillos Bustamante Rueda, senior maestro de campo in Ciudad deZamboanga, inaugurated Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa (better known as Fort Pilar to Jolo Christians and Moslems alike)

December 08, 1720 - Fort Pilar was stormed by Butig Rajah Dalasi with an armada of one hundred “paraws”; He captured a local Jesuit priest and forced Manila Spanish government to give ransom payment in exchange for his freedom

December 1720 - Sulu Sultan Badar directed Datu Bendahara and Datu Nakhuda to Batavia to renew an appeal for Dutch military assistance, and together with forces from the Sultanate of Maguindanaw, attacked Fort Pilar but was foiled

1721 - Manila governor-general Toribio Cosio sent Fray Antonio de Roxas to Ciudad deZamboanga to negotiate for the release of kidnapped Jesuit priest

December 11,1726 - Sulu Sultan Badar signed with Manila Spanish government another peace treaty which provisions were unclear

1731 - By decree of a Ming emperor, the remaining 300 survivors of Sulu East King Paduka Batara, now christened as Chinese Wen and Ang families, were assimilated into mainstream Chinese society that made perpetually alive a Tausug bloodline in that part of the world

- Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Timon sent Ignacio Iriberri to recapture Jolo with a regiment of 1,000-strong
Spanish soldiers

H.R.H. Sultan Nassar ud-Din (1734-1735)

December 6, 1734 - The 1726 peace treaty fell apart when the new Sulu Sultan Nasar ud-Din attempted to recapture Fort Pilar in Ciudad deZamboanga and to possess Taytay in Palawan.

1735 - Manila Spaniards struck back by invading Jolo that drove Sultan Nasar=s court to Dungun in Tawi-Tawi for the second time.

H.R.H. Sultan Mohammad Alim ud-Din I (Amir ul-Mumimin/King Ferdinand I) (1735-1748)

1735 - Sulu Annals remembered Sultan Alim I as one who had revised the Sulu Code of Laws and prepared a
Tausug-Arabic vocabulary manual for use by his Court=s religious imams and aleems.

February 1, 1737 - Sultan Alim I signed a bilateral alliance treaty with Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Tamon that provided for permanent peace in the region;

- King Philip V of Spain sent a delegation of Jesuit priests to Jolo to spread Roman Catholicism; Sultan Alim ud-Din
befriended these “haram” which which displeased his brother Bantilan, the Rajah Muda and seized powers from him

- Sultan Alim I sought the help of Ciudad deZamboanga governor Abando who in turn transferred him to the care of F. Valdez y Tamon in Manila

- Plant scientist M. de Tremegon, under the dictates of M. Poivre of the Isle of France, explored Jolo for spice plants.

H.R.H. Sultan Muiz ud-Din (Rajah Muda Bantilan) (1748-1763)

1748 - In the absence of Sultan Alim I, Rajah Muda Bantilan ascended the throne and named himself Sultan Muiz
ud-Din and abrogated the 1737 peace treaty.

1749 - Meanwhile in Malacanang, now under governor-general Arrechderra, exiled Sultan Alim I was made a Roman Catholic and conferred the Christian title of King Ferdinand I of Sulu.

- To cast away the shame put upon the Sulu Sultanate, Sultan Alim I’s daughter Fatima sought for his release in exchange for sixty Spaniards held prisoners in Jolo.

1750 - Sultan Muiz led roaring raids against the Spanish settlements in the whole of Visayas [Ang mga Pilipino].

- Brunei Sultan Omar Ali Saif ud-Dein similarly ordered attacks on Manila.

April 29,1750 - After being reinstated as Sultan by Malacanang, he was arrested on his way back to Jolo under the orders of governor-geneal Zacarias.

July 12,1751 - Sultan Alim ud-Din was returned to the care of the Zamboanga governor after fifteen years of exile in
Fort Santiago.

December 21,1751 - A furious Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Tamon issued a decree that ordered: (1) The extermination of all Moros with fire and sword; (2) The destruction of all their crops and desolate their lands; (3) Make Moro captives; (4) Recover Christian slaves; and (5) Exempt all Christians from payment of any taxes and tributes while engaged in the termination of these Moros.

1754 - Three Jesuit priests led by Fray Jose Ducos engaged themselves in an evangelistic mission to Jolo and established a Catholic congregation.

- For the first time Ajihad was exercised by the Sultan of Mindanaw upon the Maestro de Campo of Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga for seizing his goods without due notice.

March 3,1754 - The Manila Spanish government signed another peace treaty with Sultan Muiz ud-Din.

1755 - A Manila Spanish contingent of 1,900 men led by captains Simeon Valdez and Pedro Gastambide was sent to Jolo to avenge for the raids carried out by self-proclaimed Sultan Muiz ud-Din.

1761 - Alexander Dalrymple, Madras representative of the British East India Company, concluded an agreement with self-proclaimed Sultan Muiz ud-Din that permitted him to set up a trading post in Balembangan island in Kudat North Borneo, a territory of the Sultanate of Sulu

H.R.H. Sultan Alim ud-Din (Amir ul-Mumimin) (1763-1773, 2nd Ascension)

1763 - Dalrymple maliciously renamed Balembangan island and hoisted the British flag to the ire of Sultan Muiz ud-Din

- Madras British East India Company sent another officer, John Herbert, to build a settlement in Balembangan but
which plan was abandoned in 1775

- British soldiers invaded and successfully captured May Nilad

- The British restored an exiled Sulu Sultan Alim ud-Din I to his throne in Jolo

- As gesture of gratitude, Sulu Sultan Alim ud-Din I leased his dominion in North Borneo to a British company for
exclusive trading privileges and signed a mutual defense pact with the British Crown that included the establishment of a military base in Sulu

1769 - Sultan Alim ud-Din I ordered the continuous foraging of Visayas and Luzon, even raiding Malate, just outside of Spanish Intramuros, and carried off thousands of captives to be sold in the slave markets of Batavia, Malaka, and Tamasek

1771 - Sultan Alim ud-Din declared a jihad against the Manila Spaniards for having unlawfully detained him on his
way home from May Nilad at Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga

H.R.H. Sultan Isirail (1773-1778)

1775 - Datu Tating in twenty vessels with 4,000 pirates assaulted the British military base in Sulu and carted away booty amounting to US$1,000,000 including an enormous supply of war materials

H.R.H. Sultans Alim ud-Din II, Sarap ud-Din & Alim ud-Din III (1778-1808)

1796 - Spanish admiral Jose Alava was sent from Madrid with the most powerful naval fleet to combat Moro piratical attacks in the Sulu Sea

1798 - Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Ciudad deZamboanga was bombarded by the British navy coming from its military base in Sulu

1803 - Lord Arthur Wellesley, governor-general of India, ordered Robert J. Fraquhar to turn Balembangan island in
Borneo into a military station, however, for lack of logistics, abandoned it in November 1805

1805 - The British government withdrew her military base in Sulu

H.R.H. Sultans Ali ud-Din & Shakir ul-Lah (1808-1823)

1821 - ALas Islas Felipinas@ was now directly administered from Madrid after Mexico won her independence from Spain

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (1823-1844)

1824 - Spanish captain Alonso Morgado commanded frigate AMarina Sutil@ that fought the Moro pirates in the Sulu Sea

- The Manila Spanish treasury decreed that all Islas Felipinas provinces, excepting Mindanaw and Sulu, be required to pay ADonativo deZamboanga, an annual tax-payment of one ganta of rice or one half real

1831 - Ciudad de Zamboanga was declared a free port

1836 - American trader G.W. Earl sailed to Jolo to barter guns, powder, and rifles in exchange for Sulu’s tortoise shells and Palawan’s birds nests

February 5,1842 - American captain Charles Wilkes landed in Jolo and signed the first-ever US-documented peace & trade treaty with Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I

April 23,1843 - France signed a AMost-Favored Nation@ treaty with Sultan Jaml ul-Kiram I including negotiating to buy Basilan island for its commercial and naval base, however, the US$1Million asking price left the deal invalidate [Orosa, Kho]

H.R.H. Sultan Mohammad Pulalun (1844-1862)

1844 - Manila governor-general Narciso Claveria led another war expedition to Jolo

October1844 - Macao-based French admiral Cecille attempted to double-cross Sultan Pulalun and sent for captain Guerin on a frigate Sabine to reconnaissance Basilan. In their clumsiness, ensign Meynard and four other sailors were captured by the Yakans including one fatally killed. Embarrased, the French blockaded Basilan and blamed Datu Usak for depredations made against them

January 13, 1845 - Datu Usuk declared Atotal independence viz-a-viz Spain

Februrary 20,1845 - Sulu Sultan Pulalun ceded Basilan to France in exchange for 500,000 francs which was payable in September but the French navy under Cecille instead took it by force and attacked Basilan on February 27 and destroyed all its croplands that angered the Yakans.

June 30,1845 - The French cabinet approved the annexation of Basilan but was reversed by King Phillipe in deference of Spain whose House of Bourbons/Orleans his wife is a part of.

December 1, 1845 - English traveler William Edwards narrated in his Diary of Ahis tongue cut out of (my) mouth on my passage home from the coast of China, to Liverpool by Ilanun pirates who gathered slaves and sold them in Sumatra and Java . . .

Balani pirates, who were based in Jolo, attacked Spanish vessels using 60-seater-corocoro fitted with outriggers and powered by either sail or oar with displacements of 81 tones.

1846 - By winning the 1844 battle, the Sultan prized the Manila Spaniards the towns of Sibuguey and Bisungan in the Zamboanga Peninsula

1848 - Claveria ordered the attack on Balanni pirates in Tonguil Sulu with powerful gunboats Magallanes, El Cano, and Reina de Castilla acquired from Madrid and started the decline of the Sulu Sultanate sea power

November 21,1849 - Claveria issued CATALOGO ALFABETICO DE APELLIDOS and ordered its use and systematic distribution by native Filipinos throughout the colony but was never introduced to subjects of Sulu Sultanate

1850 - Spanish Gov.Gen. Juan Urbiztondo successfully completed the destruction of the pirate stronghold on Tongkil island

February 28, 1851 - Urbiztondo raided Jolo and destroyed the whole town by fire and confiscated 112 pieces of artillery

- Jesuits fathers Ibanez, Zamora, Sanchez, Lopez, and Montiel lost their lives during this fiery raid

April 19, 1851 - Sultan Mohammad Pulalun signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown that provided for the turning over of his sovereign rights although Saleeby noted that the words Aturning over its sovereignty was never mentioned in the Tausug version of the treaty

April 30, 1851 - As a consequence of the April 19, 1851 Treaty, Sultan Pulalun negotiated with Urbiztondo forSpain to pay US$1,500 annually to the Court of the Sulu Sultanate and abolish all sorts of taxes & tributes on his subjects

- In Manila, fray Roman Martines Vigil justified the Spanish raids in Jolo as Ajust wars@ which position he was able to raise 20 Million-pesos from Chinese capitalists to further these wars

1852 - Spanish Queen Isabella II ordered the Jesuits to take charge of all Catholic missions in Mindanaw and Sulu

1858 - Moro pirates attacked Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga in the hope of possessing the fort

1860 - The Donativo deZamboanga was abolished

- Manila Spanish government closed Jolo to foreign vessels and guarded its port with eighteen steam boats in an attempt to control piracy in Sulu.

- Balanni and Ilanun pirates were destroyed by a joint Spanish-British naval forces patrolling the Sulu-China-Celebes Seas triangle

1862 - Gallant Catholic Jesuits opened missions in Tetuan (Zamboanga) and Isabela (Basilan) to supplement Spanish conquests with military might

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Alam (1863-1881)

1864 - A German sea captain employed by the Labuan German Trading Company named Herman Leopold Schuck
called on the port of Jolo for provisions and to repair sails of his barque, the Queen of the Seas; made a courtesy call on Sulu Sultan Jamal ul-Alam and promised to supply M-71 Mauser infantry rifles, opium, and slaves.

1865 - North Borneo American consul Claude Lee Moses obtained a 10-year-lease on North Borneo from Sultan
Jamal ul-Alam, however, Moses sold his rights to a British-registered American Trading Company owned by J.W. Torrey, T.B. Harris, et. al. This American company in turn sold the same to the Austrian consul in Hongkong, Baron von Overbeck, for whom he contracted the Dent Brothers, through Alfred Dent, to finance its expansion plans.

1872 - Schuck sent a letter of Sultan Jamal ul-Alam to German chancellor Otto von Bismarch, together with gifts of
pearls and pearl shells, seeking Germany’s protection. In exchange, the Sultanate was willing to cede Bongao to Germany as a coaling station for her Far East Imperial Fleet.

- Cabesang Benito with sixty-seven other inmates bolted Fort Pilar in Ciudad deZamboanga killing one Spanish officer and four sentinels that frustrated Zamboanga governor Juan Mas Ozaeta.

- Iranun corsair Alejo Alvarez of Sibuguey, together with Spanish colonel Melanio Enriquez, were engaged by governor Ozaeta to clear Fort Pilar

- Manila Spanish government awarded Ciudad de Zamboanga the royal title of ALeal y Valiente Villa@ for clearing Fort Pilar and made a son of Alejo Alvarez, Vicente, a deputy in Malacanang.

- Vicente Alvarez subsequently became a peace negotiator for Malacanang with the Sulu Sultanate in whose ability Sultan Jamal ul-Alam was also please and bestoed in him the title of Datu Tumanggung; Alvarez later joined the army of Philippine Insurrection leader Emilio Aguinaldo and became a general.

January 1, 1874 - The Charter of the British East India Company was canceled and the company dissolved when the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect.

Februayr 21, 1876 - Admiral Jose Malcampo led a contingent of 9,000 Spaniards, including hundreds of priests and nuns, in 11 transports, 11 gunboats, and 11 steam boats to Aannex@ Jolo but failed this mission when Sultan Jamal ul-Alam declared a jihad on them and ordered his loyal subjects to use Aparrang sabbil@as a last recourse to regain control of Jolo.

- Successful in temporarily penetrating Jolo, Malcampo then appointed Capt. Pascual Cervera to set up a garrison and serve as the first Spanish military governor; He served from March 1876 to December1876 followed by Brig.Gen. Jose Paulin (December 1876-April 1877) and Col Carlos Martinez (Sept 1877-Feb 1880).

1877 - Brunei Annals recorded Sultan Abdul Momin to have signed a treaty leasing North Borneo to the British Crown which was inconsistent with Sulu history that a similar act was also concluded on January 22, 1878

March.1877 - The Sulu Protocol was signed between Spain, England, and Germany that recognized Spain=s rights over Sulu and, in consideration for the said lease of North Borneo, ended European hostilities in the area

1878 - Manila Spaniards built the Walled City of Jolo which was fortified by two outer forts they named Picesa de
Asturias and Torre dela Reina including three inner forts called Puerta Blockaus, Puerta Espana, and Puerta Alfonso XII; Also included were lancerias which were guarded by twelve Spanish soldiers commanded by a lieutenant

January 22,1878 - In exchange for US$5,000, Sultan Jamal ul-Alam leased North Borneo to the Hong Kong-based British trading company of Baron Gustavos von Overbeck and Alfred Dent and conferred upon Overbeck the title Datu Bendahara, Raja of Sandakan [K.B. Tregoning, A History of Modern Sabah/Agoncillo history of the Filipino People]

July 22, 1878 - Sultan Jamal ul-Alam signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown making whole of Sulu a protectorate of Spain yet retained her autonomy and the privilege to fly own flag thus saved Jolo from further destruction. [Majul Muslim in the Philipppines/Kho]

- Sultan Jamal ul-Alam moved the seat of the Sultanate to Darul Maimbung

1880 - Spanish Col. Rafael Gonzales deRivera assumed the governorship of Jolo and dispatched the 6th Regiment to Siasi and Bongao islands

H.R.H. Sultan Badar ud-Din II (1881-1886)

1881 - An accomplished negotiator, pacifist, and master of Arabic language and the Koran, Hajji Butu Abdulbaqui
Rasul was appointed the first and only prime minister of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu

November 1, 1881 - The British Crown awarded Alfred Dent a provisional Charter to form the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Ltd.

- Brunei Sultan Abdul Momin awarded Sarawak to an English adventurer named Sir Charles Brooke who later became known as the White Rajah

1882 - The holdings, assets, and Royal Charter of the BNB Provisional Association, Ltd. were bequeathed and
transferred to the British North Borneo Chartered Company with Sir Rutherford Alcock serving as first president and Alfred Dent as managing director; BNBCC served the British Crown for sixty years until 1945 when the latter finally took over

1883 - Manila Spanish government established a customs house in Ciudad de Zamboanga to clear goods coming into the Sultanate of Sulu but, on the insistence of the British, Jolo was declared a free port and trade continued

July 22, 1883 - Sulu Annals reported three unnamed A juramentado who succeeded in penetrating Jolo town plaza and massacred Lts. Pedro Bordas and Caledonio Manrique, and Dr. Juan Dominguez in the name of Allah; The word Ajuramentado was coined by Spanish colonel Juan Arolas after witnessing several such acts while serving duty in Jolo garrison.

1884 - Sultan Badar ud-Din II built Masjid Jammi Tulay Mosque in Jolo.

1886 - The Crown of the Sultanate was disputed between Rajah Muda Amir ul-Kiram of Maimbung and Datu Ali
ud-Din of Patikul but the Spanish Manila government involved herself in the power struggle and chose Palawan Datu Harun al-Rashid as its candidate.

H.R.H. Sultan Harun al-Rashid (1886-1893)

September 24, 1886 - Datu Harun al-Rashid was crowned Sultan of Sulu by the Manila governor-general Juan Terrero in a Christian investiture in Malacanang

1887 - Terrero paid a courtesy call on Sulu Sultan al-Rashid in Jolo

April 16, 1887 - Immediately after said visit, spanish colonel Juan Arolas was instructed to capture Darul Maimbung, seat of the Sulu Sultanate, for the Spanish Crown

1888 - Brunei Sultan brought the rump of his territories under the British Crown; North Borneo became a British
Protectorate; Brunei became a British protected state.

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (Amir ul-Kiram/King Jubilado dePalawan) (1893-1936)

1893 - Sultan Harun al-Rashid abdicated his throne to cousin Rajah Muda Amir ul -Kiram for his failure to save Darul Maimbung that placed the Manila Spanish government plans in shambles

- Rajah Muda Amir ul-Kiram transferred the seat of the Sultanate to Palawan and briefly named himself King Jubilado de Palawan (he was to be known later as Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I)

- Fray Jose Cavelleria sailed round the island of Basilan whose revered ruler was King Taguima, a cousin of
Mindanaw Sultan Kudarat

December 30, 1896 - La Liga Filipina founder Dr. Jose P. Rizal was executed by the Spaniards at Bagumbayan in Manila

September 21, 1897 - Around 1:17pm an earthquake hit the Sulu Sea about the area of Zamboanga and Basilan that was as destructive as the Krakatoa quake

- During its final calm, a woman in white clothes with hands lifted up, was allegedly seen by thousands of spectators in Ciudad de Zamboanga by the Basilan Strait as if to order the impendent Atsunami@ to halt; This action, according to legend, saved Ciudad de Zamboanga from full-size destruction and made this lady a revered saint of Fort Pilar

February 25, 1898 - Commodore George Dewey, commander of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron, received a secret cable from Navy assistant secretary Theodore Roosevelt to proceed to Manila

April 22, 1898 - U.S. president William McKinley signed the Volunteer Army Act that activated the First Volunteer Cavalry (the “Rough Riders”), and appointed Theodore Roosevelt, a lieutenant-colonel, its first commander

April 23, 1898 - Manila governor-general Basilio Augustin y Davila issued a proclamation announcing the defeat of Spain in the Battle of San Juan and the approach of commodore Dewey from Hongkong

May 1, 1898 - Dewey secured Manila after the defeat of Spanish Admiral Patricio Montojo y Parasan at the Battle of Manila Bay; This feat led the U.S. Congress to promote Dewey to Rear Admiral on May 10, 1898 and again to Navy Admiral on March 13, 1899

June 12, 1898 - Filipino Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit Cavite with U.S. army artillery commander Col. L.M. Johnson as the only American official to witness the occasion.

June 23, 1898 - Aguinaldo declared a Revolutionary Congress in Malolos Bulacan

June 30, 1898 - Arrival in Cavite of the first installment of 2,500 U.S. Volunteer Cavalry troops under Gen. Thomas M. Anderson that included the 14th infantry, 1st California, and 2nd Oregon; Also with the troops were military hardware of 400-ton-ammunition for Dewey=s three ships (City of Peking, City of Sydney, and Australia)

July 25, 1898 - Arrival of Gen. Wesley Merritt to assume overall command of the U.S. expeditionary forces in the

August 14, 1898 - Occupation of Manila by U.S. forces under Merritt

August 22, 1898 - Gen. Elwell Otis replaced Merritt as overall commander of U.S. expeditionary forces in the Philippines

October 26, 1898 - U.S. president McKinley instructed the his peace commission to annex the Philippine Islands after conferring with Presbyterian advisers

November 21, 1898 - U.S. peace commissioners presented an ultimatum to the Spanish Crown for the signing the Treaty of Paris

- During negotiations, U.S. State Secretary William R Day, “recommended a payment of $25million taking into account the defeated adversary's bankruptcy and loss of colonial revenues . . . if necessary was prepared to leave Mindanao and Sulu to Spain,” while Whitelaw Ried on the other hand, “wanted to take all the Philippines, basing his policy on the principle of indemnity. If compromise becomes necessary, he proposed to leave Mindanao and the Sulus to Spain in return for the Ladrones and the Carolines” (clear indicators that Sulu should have not been part of Spain's ceased territories)


December 10, 1898 - Treaty of Paris was signed in Washington DC between the United States and Spain

December 21, 1898 - McKinley issued a proclamation calling for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation

December 31, 1898 - McKinley instructed his War Department to extend military governance to the entire Philippine Islands

Januart 4, 1899 - Otis issued a proclamation declaring the Philippines Islands under the sovereign and complete control of the United States of America

January 23, 1899 - Aguinaldo proclaimed the establishment of the First Philippine Republic at Malolos Bulacan and declared himself president

April 1899 - HRH Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (may his soul rest in peace), the last and truly sovereign-reigning sultan of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu, died in his peace at his Astana Putih in Darul Maimbung, Lupah Sug, Bangsamoro.

The details @


Today in Philippine History, January 22, 1878, Baron de Overbeck was conferred the title Datu Bandahara by the Sultan of Sulu

On January 22, 1878, Baron de Overbeck was conferred the title Datu Bandahara and Rajah of Sandakan by Sultan Mahomed Jamal Al Alam, Sultan of Sulu.

The Sultan announced to "all nations of the earth whom these matters may concern, certain portions of the dominions owned by us comprising all the lands on the north and east coast of Borneo ... we do hereby nominate and appoint Baron de Overbeck supreme and independent ruler of the above named territories with the title of Datu Bandahara and Rajah of Sandakan".

The announcement was made at the palace of the sultan at Lipuk in the island of Sulu. 

Alfred Dent

It was also in this occassion, through the instrumentation of Sir Alfred Dent, that the Sultan of Sulu was induced to transfer to a company formed by Baron de Overbeck and Sir Dent, his possession in North Borneo for a lease of 5,000 Mexican dollars annually and the Sultan to collect the rent in Sandakan.

The Spanish campaigns for Christendom had despoiled the Sultan's realm with steamships and heavy cannon. It is recorded that not a house was left whole anywhere on Jolo. As the Sultanate had thus been ruined, fields and homes alike, the royal revenues were sorely depleted. To recoup the Islamic bourse, therefore, the Sultan made the deal with the British.

In later years, the Sultan would claim that the original agreement of which duplicate copies were made, in Sulu language, was dated and for only 50 years.

The Sultan's copy of the agreement was burned in the war with Spain. The other copy was said to be locked up securely in the vault of the company in London.

American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines Journal, Pages 11-13, Volume 6, Number 7, July 1926

A Question

The Sultan's copy of the agreement was burned in the war with Spain. The other copy was said to be locked up securely in the vault of the company in London. 

If the above statement is true, so how the english translation of the Sulu version was made or I got wrong understanding on this ???

Sulu version hereby lease of our own freewill and satisfaction to...all the territories and lands being tributary to [us] together with their heirs, associates, successors and assigns forever and until the end of time, all rights and powers which we possess over all territories and lads tributary to us on the mainland of the Island of Borneo, commencing from the Pandassan River on the west coast to Maludu Bay, and extending along the whole east coast as far as Sibuco River on the south,..., and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco River, ..., [9 nautical miles] of the coast."[6]


والله أعلم
Allah Knows best


Sultan of Sulu - Who Is The Real One ?

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Terima kasih sudi hadir

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