Suluk Tausug is a Melayu and Islam as the Religion
Tausug : The bravest tribe
by:. Prof. Muhammad Nasser Matli
Tausug is a slang word and originated from two words: tau (people) and ma-isug (brave). Therefore, Tausug means brave people. Before the coming of Islam, the Tausug had already established a central government. When Islam came, Tausug leaders accepted Islam. They did not resist. As soon as they became Muslims they made themselves models by infusing Islamic values and politics to the government. The result was the spread of justice in the land. Seeing the beauty of Muslim leadership, the entire natives finally accepted Islam. The peaceful triumph of Islam in Sulu in the middle of the 13th century led to the Islamization of local politics. This was the process that brought about the establishment of the Sulu sultanate in 1450. Many Tausug leaders were sent outside Sulu to further strengthen the Sulu sultanate influence. This was the origin of the growth of Tausug communities in Tawi-Tawi, Palawan, Basilan, Zamboanga, and Sabah. Up to this period, these places are still the favorite destination of Tausug migrants who have been displaced by the wars and conflicts between the Muslims and the Philippine government.
The history of Sulu begins with Makdum, a Mus-lim missionary, who arrived in Sulu in 1380. He intro-duced the Islamic faith and settled in Sibutu until his death. The mosque at Tubig-Indangan which he built still stands, albeit in ruins. In 1390 Raja Baguinda land-ed at Buansa and extended the missionary work of Makdum. The Muslim Arabian scholar Abu Bakr ar-rived in 1450, married Baguinda's daughter, and after Baguinda's death, became sultan, thereby introducing the sultanate as a political system. Political districts were created in Parang, Pansul, Lati, Gitung, and Lu-uk, each -headed by a panglima or district leader. After Abu Bakr's death, the sultanate system had already become well established in Sulu. Before the coming of the Spaniards, the ethnic groups in Sulu-the Tausug, Samal, Yakan, and Badjao-were in varying degrees united under the Sulu sultanate, considered the most centralized -political system in the Philippines (Orosa 1970:20-21).
With the arrival of the Spaniards came successive expeditions to conquer the Muslim groups in the south. Called the "Moro Wars," these battles were waged intermittently from 1578 till 1898 between the Spanish colonial government and the Muslims of Mindanao. In 1578 an expedition sent by Gov Francisco de Sande and headed by Capt Rodriguez de Figueroa began the 300-year warfare between the Tausug and the Spanish authorities. In 1579 the Spanish government gave de Figueroa the sole right to colonize Mindanao. He was killed in an ambush, and his troops retreated to an anchorage near Zamboanga. In retaliation, the Muslims raided Visayan towns in Panay, Negros, and Cebu. These were repulsed by Spanish and Visayan forces (Angeles 1974:27-28; Saber 1976:13; Orosa 1970:21). In the early 17th century, the largest alliance composed of the Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, other Muslim groups was formed by Sultan Kudarat or Cachil Corralat of Maguindanao, whose domain extended from the Davao Gulf to Dapitan on the Zamboanga peninsula. Several expeditions sent by the Spanish authorities suffered defeat. In 1635 Capt Juan de Chaves occupied Zamboanga and erected a fort. This led to the defeat of Kudarat's feared admiral, Datu Tagal, who had raided pueblos in the Visayas. In 1637, Gov Gen Hurtado de Corcuera personally led an expedition against Kudarat, and triumphed over his forces at Lamitan and Ilian. On 1 Jan 1638, de Corcuera with 80 vessels and 2000 soldiers, defeated the Tausug and occupied Jolo. A peace treaty was forged. The victory did not establish Spanish sovereignty over Sulu, as the Tausug abrogated the treaty as soon Spaniards left in 1646 (Miravite 1976:40; Angeles 1974:28; Saber 1975:23; Orosa 1970:22).
In 1737 Sultan Alimud Din I entered into a "perma-nent" peace treaty with Gov Gen F. Valdes y Tamon; and in 1746, befriended the Jesuits sent to Jolo by King Philip V. In 1748 he was forcibly removed by the forces of Bantilan, son of an earlier sultan. Alimud Din was charged as being "too friendly" with the Christians, whereupon he left for Manila in 1749. He was received well by Gov Gen Arrechderra and was baptized on 29 Apr 1750. He was humiliated in 1753, when after being reinstated as sultan, he was arrested on his way back to Sulu, under the orders of Gov Gen Zacarias. The Tausug retaliated by raiding northern coasts. In 1763 he was released by the British forces which had occupied Manila. He returned to Sulu as sultan, and in 1769, ordered the invasion of Manila Bay (Orosa 1970:22-25).
The Sulu sultanate declined after 1848 when the colonial authorities began the use of steamboats. Pira-cy was effectively halted, and in 1851, Gen Urbiztondo led an expedition that defeated the Tausug. But Sulu was only occupied and made into a protectorate in 1876 when Gov Gen Malcampo, using naval artillery, succeeded in destroying the kota (fort) of Jolo, and prevented the smuggle of ammunition to the besieged forces. A garrison was set up in Jolo commanded by Capt P. Cervera. Tausug attempts to recover the city were not successful. In 1893, amid succession con-troversies, Amirnul Kiram became Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, the title being officially recognized by the Spanish authorities. In 1899, after the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-American War, Col Luis Huerta, the last governor of Sulu, relinquished his garrison to the Americans (Orosa 1970:25-30).
During the Philippine-American War, the Amer-icans adopted a policy of noninterference in the Mus-lim areas, as spelled out in the Bates Agreement of 1899 signed by Brig Gen John Bates and Sultan Jamalul Kiram II of Jolo. The agreement was a mutual nonag-gression pact which obligated the Americans to recog-nize the authority of the sultan and other chiefs, who, in turn, agreed to fight piracy and crimes against non-Christians. However, the Muslims did not know that the Treaty of Paris, which had ceded the Philippine archipelago to the Americans, included their land as well. The idea that they were part of the Philippines had never occurred to them until then. Although the Bates Agreement had "pacified," to a certain extent, the Sulu sultanate, resistance continued. In 1901, panglima (district chief) Hassan and his followers fought the Americans, believing that acceptance of American sovereignty would affect his own authority (Che Man l990:46-47)
After the Philippine-American War, the Americans established direct rule over the newly formed "Moro province," which consisted of five districts-Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, Davao, and Sulu. Political, social, and economic changes were introduced. These included the creation of provincial and district institutions; the introduction of the public school system and American-inspired judicial system the imposition of the cedula or head tax; the migration of Christians to Muslim lands encouraged by the colonial government; and the abolition of slavery. These and other factors contributed to Muslim resistance that took 10 years "to pacify" (Che Man 1990: 23, 47-48). The Department of Mindanao and Sulu replaced the Moro province on 15 Dec 1913. A "policy of attraction" was introduced, ushering in reforms to encourage Muslim integration into Philippine society. In 1916, after the passage of the Jones Law, which transferred legislative power to a Philippine Senate and House of Representatives, polygyny was made illegal. Provisions were made, however, to allow Muslims time to comply with the new restrictions. "Proxy colonialism" was legalized by the Public Land Act of 1919, invalidating Muslim pusaka (inherited property) laws. The act also granted the state the right to confer land ownership. It was thought that the Muslims would "learn" from the "more advanced" Christianized Filipinos, and would integrate more easily into mainstream Philippine society (Che Man 1990: 20-24, 51-52; Isidro 1976:64-65). In February 1920 the Philippine Senate and House of Representatives passed Act No 2878, which abolished the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and transferred its responsibilities to the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes under the Department of the Interior. Muslim dissatisfaction grew as power shifted to the Christianized Filipinos. Petitions were sent by Muslim leaders between 1921 and 1924 requesting that Mindanao and Sulu be administered directly by the United States. These petitions were not granted (Che Man 1990:52-53). Realizing the futility of armed resistance, some Muslims sought to make the best of the situation. In 1934, Arolas Tulawi of Sulu, Datu Manandang Piang and Datu Blah Sinsuat of Cotabato, and Sultan Alaoya Alonto of Lanao were elected to the 1935 Constitutional Convention. In 1935 two Muslims were elected to the National Assembly.
The Commonwealth years sought to end the privileges the Muslims had been enjoying under the earlier American administration. Muslim exemptions from some national laws, as expressed in the administrative code for Mindanao, and the Muslim right to use their traditional Islamic courts, as expressed in the Moro Board, were ended. The Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes was replaced by the Office of Commissioner for Minda-nao and Sulu, whose main objective was to tap the full economic potentials of Mindanao not for the Muslims but the Commonwealth. These "development" efforts resulted in discontent (Che Man 1990:55-56).
The Muslims are generally adverse to anything that threatens Islam and their way of life. Che Man (1990: 56) believes that they were neither anti-American nor anti-Filipino, but simply against any form of foreign encroachment into their traditional way of life. During WWII, the Muslims in general supported the fight against the Japanese, who were less tolerant and harsher to them. After independence, efforts to integrate the Musl-ims into the new political order met with stiff resistance. It was unlikely that the Muslims, who have had a cultural history as Muslims than the Filipinos as Christians, would surrender their identity. In 1951, Kamlun, a devout and wealthy native of Tandu Pa-nuan, took up arms against the government for a num-ber of reasons. For one, he was not on good with other local leaders, some of whom he killed. There were also problems with land titling which Kamlun refused to undertake since to him ownership of land is not evident by means of piece of paper. Fearing government -persecution, he went to the hills. In July 1952, the first negotiation for surrender was held between Alibon, Kamlun's brother, and Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay. However, a week later, Kamlun resumed his fight, accusing the government of bad faith. "Operation Durian" was launched to capture him. He surrendered on 10 Nov 1952, but on 2 December, was granted parole. In 1953 he went back to the hills until his surrender on 24 Sept 1955. On "death row," he was finally pardoned by Pres Marcos on 11 Sept 1968 (Che Man 1990:56-62; Tan 1977:114-417).
The conflict between Muslims and Christian Filipi-nos was exacerbated in 1965 with the "Jabidah Mas-sacre," in which Muslim soldiers were allegedly elim-inated because they refused to invade Sabah. This incident contributed to the rise of various separatist movements-the Muslim Independence Movement (MIM), Ansar El-Islam, and Union of Islamic Forces and Organizations (Che Man 1990:74-75).
In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was founded on the concept of a Bangsa Moro Republic by a group of educated young Muslims. The leader of this group, Nur Misuari, regarded the earlier movements as feudal and oppressive, and employed a Marxist framework to analyze the Muslim condition and the general Philippine situation. Except for a brief show of unity during the pre-Martial Law years, the new movement suffered internal disunity (Tan 1977:118-122; Che Man 1990:77-78).
In 1976, negotiations between the Philippine gov-ernment and the MNLF in Tripoli resulted in the Tri-poli Agreement, which provided for an autonomous region in Mindanao. Negotiations resumed in 1977, and the following points were agreed upon: the proclamation of a Presidential Decree creating autonomy in 13 provinces; the creation of a provisional government; and the holding of a referendum in the autonomous areas to determine the administration of the govern-ment. Nur Misuari was invited to chair the provisional government but he refused. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslims themselves. The talks col-lapsed, and fighting continued (Che Man 1990:146-147). When Corazon C. Aquino became president, a new constitution, which provided for the creation of autonomous regions in Mindanao and the Cordilleras, was ratified. On 1 Aug 1989, Republic Act 673 or the Organic Act for Mindanao created the Autonomous Region of Mindanao, which encompasses Maguinda-nao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi
Islam is Our Religion
The Tausug follow standard Islamic beliefs and practices. The Quran is considered by all Muslims as the words of Allah (God), revealed to the prophet Muhammad through archangel Gabriel, and as the source of all Islamic Law, principles and values. Aside from the Quran and the Sunnah and Haddith (literally, "a way, rule, or manner of acting"), other Islamic sources of law include Ijtihad (independent judgment) and Qiyas (analogy). The Five Pillars of Islam are dec-laration of beheb in the oneness of God and the prophethood of Muhammad and the four obligations of praying, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's lifetime. Classical Muslim Jurists divided the world into Dar-al-Islam (Land of Islam) or those territories where the Law of Islam prevails; Dar-al-Harb (Land of War) which includes those countries where Muslim Law is not in force; Dar-al-Ahd (Land of the Covenant) consi-dered as a temporary and often intermediate territory between Dar-al-Islam and Dar-al-Harb; and Dar-al-Sulk (House of Truce), territories not conquered by -Muslim troops, where peace is attained by the payment of tribute which guarantees a truce or armistice. A concept often misunderstood is parang sabil or holy war, which later developed into "ritual suicide." The term derives from the Malay words perang meaning "war" and sabil, from the Arabic "fi sabil Allah meaning "in the path of God." It refers to a jihad (holy war) against those who threaten the sanctity of Islam. It is resorted to when all forms of organized resistance fail. Those who die in the struggle are pronounced shahid (martyrs) and automatically gain a place sulga (heaven). Failing to understand this religious dimension, the Spaniards and the Americans have reduced the concept into a psychological disorder, have referred to the shahid as juramentados and amock, respectively. Indigenous beliefs persist. Aside from Allah or Tuhan, the Tausug are also concerned with spirits inhabit nature, especially rocks and trees, and who are believed to be the cause of human suffering. Among these are the saytan (evil spirits) and jinn (unseen creatures). Some saytan have names, like the balbalan (manananggal), a flying creature which enjoys the liver of corpses. The Christian devil finds its counterpart in iblis, who tempts people into evil. The Tausug also believe in the four composites of the human soul: the transcendental soul, the life-soul associated with the blood, the breath or life essence, and the spirit-soul who travels during dreams and who causes the -shadow. The Tausug concept of religious merit also differs from that of the orthodox Muslims. Unjustified killing transfers the merits of the offender to the victim, and the demerits of the victim to the offender. The terms sulga (heaven) and narka (hell) do not denote places but states-of-being, and are interchangeable with the concepts of karayawan (state of goodness) and kasiksaan (state of suffering), respectively (Kiefer 1972a:112-114, 128-130). Indigenous healing practices are assumed by the mangugubat (curer) who have direct access to the spirit world. They are not considered religious officials, as in the case of the agama (religious) priests, although their services are utilized when certain spirits need to be appeased. However, an illness that has been suc-cessfully diagnosed is not attributed to supernatural causes. Native medicine include raw squash mixed with coconut milk for meningitis, egg white applied topically on and for burns, lagundi leaves for malaria, and others. Traditional practices which were "medi-cal" in intent included the sacrifice of a hen near a balete tree. Incantations were said and a rooster was set free near the same tree. The object was to soothe the anger of the saytan believed to be the cause of the illness (Kiefer 1972a:114-115; Orosa 1970:106-107).
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Abdillah & Jedai - Dunia Maka Hailan (Dunia Menghairankan)
Kaum Suluk atau Tausūg berasal daripada Kepulauan Sulu dan Borneo (Sabah) sejak zaman Kesultanan Sulu lagi. Kaum Suluk ini menggunakan bahasa Tausug sebagai bahasa pertuturan. Agama rasmi yang dianuti adalah agama Islam. Kaum Suluk ini juga mempunyai budaya yang unik dan tersendiri. Antara contoh yang popular adalah pakaian tradisionalnya iaitu Kuput (kupot), sablay, samrah dan betawi.
Masyarakat Malaysia kurang mengenali siapa sebenarnya suku kaum Suluk yang terdapat di Sabah itu. Orang Suluk tidak memanggil diri mereka Suluk melainkan menggelar diri mereka Tausug yang secara 'harfiahnya' membawa maksud "Orang dari Sulu". Suluk di Negeri Sabah tertumpu di kawasan Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Semporna, Kunak, Kudat dan Kota Kinabalu. Perkampungan awal orang Suluk yang masih boleh dilihat sehingga hari ini ialah Pulau Tambisan yang mana masyarakat Suluknya dominan mengamalkan cara hidup orang Melayu. Namun bahasa seharian menggunakan Bahasa Suluk yang bukan sahaja dituturkan oleh penduduk kampung keturunan Suluk malah turut dituturkan dengan fasih oleh suku etnik yang lain seperti Brunei, Kagayan, Bugis, Jawa, Cina dan Arab. Pulau Tambisan telah melahirkan pemimpin yang di Negeri Sabah antaranya Yang Dipertua Negeri Sabah ke-10 Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Datuk Seri Panglima Haji Juhar Haji Mahiruddin, YB. Senator Datuk Hajjah Armani Haji Mahiruddin, Mantan Timbalan Speaker Dewan Negara Malaysia dan Allahyarham Datuk Seri Panglima Abu Bakar Titingan (Tawau). Menurut cerita lisan, Almarhum Sultan Jalaluddin Pablo adalah antara tokoh yang membuka perkampungan di Pulau Tambisan bersama-sama dengan ulamak Arab.
Kaum Suluk adalah majoriti di kepulauan Sulu dan bahasanya Bahasa Sug adalah bahasa perantara atau lingua franca sebelum era kesultanannya lagi hingga kini. Kaum Tausug atau Suluk berasal dari rumpun Melayu-Austronesian (Polenesian) sebagai mana masyarakat Nusantara di sekitarnya. Bahasa Sug yang mereka tutur adalah mirip bahasa Melayu lama bercampur bahasa Arab dan bahasa etnik lain di sekitar Mindanao. Mengikut sejarah, bahasa asal Suluk sebenarnya adalah dari bahasa asal Orang Tagimaha (Taguima dari Basilan).
Mengikut sumber dari Salsilah Sulu yang dicatat oleh pencatat sejarah Najeeb Saleeby dalam bukunya The History Of Sulu (Manila: 1908), suku kaum Tausug ini dan bahasanya berasal dari beberapa etnik yang bergabung iaitu Buranun, Tagimaha, Baklaya, Orang Dampuan dan Orang Banjar. Suku kaum Buranan atau Bud anun yang bererti otang bukit adalah salah satu sub etnik ORANG DAYAK yang mendiami kepulauan Sulu.Suku kaum Buranun telah dislamkan oleh Sharifful Hashim dan orang-orang Bajau yang mengiringi Shariful Hashim dari Johor dan orang-orang Taguimaha ( nenek moyaang orang-orang Bajau Yakan yang mengiringi Raja Baguinda dari Pulau Basilan. Mereka berhijrah ke kepuluan Sulu sehingga terbentuk satu masyarakat yang dikenali sebagai masyarakat Tausug.
Masyarakat Melayu Borneo Utara (Sabah) dan Kalimantan termasuk juga Brunei menggelar kaum Tausug sebagai orang Suluk. Penulis berkeyakinan bahawa panggilan “Orang Suluk” terhadap kaum Tausug ini oleh masyarakat Melayu itu berdasarkan dua sebab.
Pertama: Perkataan “Suluk” terhasil dari dua perkataan Sulu dan Sug. Oleh kerana masyarakat Melayu sendiri sukar menyebut “Sug” itu dengan sebutan yang betul maka lidah pelat orang Melayu tentu menyebut “Sug” itu dengan sebutan “Suk”, maka hasilnya kita akan lihat kemudian tergabungnya perkataan Sulu + Suk, yang membawa pengertian orang Sug di Sulu atau Suluk. Orang Melayu Brunei adalah yang terkenal menggelar Orang Tausug ini sebagai Suluk seperti yang terdapat dalam buku Tarsilah Brunei. Kesukaran orang Melayu menyebut perkataan ‘Tausug’ itu diganti dengan sebutan yang sesuai pada lidah mereka iaitu Suluk.
Kedua Perkataan Suluk itu juga adalah berasal dari bahasa Orang Bajau iaitu dari kata Sulog (disbt Sul-og)yang bererti ARUS.Orang-orang pelaut dari Johor (Bajau/Orang Laut/Orang Bajo/Orang Selat),orang Dampuan ( dari Champa ), orang Bakhlayas ( orang Wajo/Bajo dari Sulawesi ), orang Taguimaha ( Orang Dayak ( Bajau Yakan ) dari Basilan ), orang Banjar ( orang Dayak dari Kalimantan )dan Orang Buranun/Bud Anun ( orang-orang suku Dayak Bukit di Kepulauan Sulu dan Borneo ) yang kebanyakannya adalah pelaut/pelayar yang belayar jauh menongkah arus yang semuanya berasal dari Sul-Log (ARUS).Suku bangsa gabungan ini akhirnya dikenali sebagai SULOG atau orang arus dan dikenali juga dengan sebutan TAU-SUG ( dari perkatan bahasa suluk yang ertinya ORANG ARUS).Perkataan SULOG akhirnya perlahan-lahan berubah kepada sebutan SULUKakibat perbezaan sebutan loghat suku bangsa gabungan ini.Istilah SULOG juga akhirnya bertukar ke istilah SULUKapabila perkataan Sulog itu dimelayukan akibat Kegemilangan Bahasa Melayu yang menjadi Lingua-Franca Serantau di Nusantara terutamanya di Zaman Keagungan Kesultanan Brunei yang menggunakan bahasa Melayu Brunei. Justeru itulah semua suku bangsa yang menuturkan Bahasa Melayu di Nusantara menyebut istilah dan perkataan SULUK/SULOK untuk merujuk orang Suluk atau orang arus atau orang dari Kepulauan Sulu.Perkataan SUG pula disebut SUK oleh orang-orang Bajau. Orang-orang Suluk dikenali sebagai Bangsa SUK.Kata SUK berasal dari kata SUD dalam istilah orang-orang Bajau dan Suluk yang bererti MASUK.SUK pula berasal dari perkatan MASUK dari bahasa Melayu. Oleh itu kata SUK itu digunakan untuk merujuk suku bangsa-suku bangsa 'ORANG ARUS yang MASUK BERGABUNG MENJADI SATU di Kepulauan ARUS atau Kepulauan SULOG/SULOK/SULUK.
Ketiga: Perkataan ‘Suluk’ berasal dari istilah ilmu Tasawwuf. Tasawwuf adalah sebahagian dari ilmu Islam yang sangat mendapat perhatian terutamanya di sekitar Nusantara. Di dalam Islam ia juga dikenali sebagai ilmu Ihsan. Bersuluk bermaksud orang yang menyibukkan dirinya dengan zikrullah (mengingat dengan menyebut nama Allah swt sebanyak-banyaknya) di satu tempat tertentu. Manakala dari kata jamaknya ‘Salik’ iaitu seseorang yang menempuh jalan bersuluk mendekatkan diri kepada Allah swt mengikut kaedah Tasawwuf, membersih atau memurnikan rohaninya dengan menjadikan Allah swt sahaja sebagai tujuan hidup dan matinya.
Seorang Salik yang telah mengenal Rabbnya maka tiada yang wujud dalam pandangannya melainkan kewujudan Allah swt al-khalik pendek kata hatinya dipenuhi oleh kebesaran Allah swt. Sebab itu orang Suluk ini ketika sampai di kemuncak kerohaniannya akan terjun ke medan perang setelah panggilan jihad kedengaran kerana tujuannya hanyalah Allah swt semata.
Ilmu Suluk ini semestinya dipimpin oleh para syeikh yang arif billah. Para syeikh atau guru inilah yang mencetak para mujahid kearah jihad fisabilillah yang digeruni pihak musuh. Prof. Cesar Adib Majul berkata:
“..tetapi kepada mereka atau para pendeta (Guru Agama - pent) yang mempersiapkan mereka untuk menjalankan tugas tersebut, mempertahankan dar ul-Islam adalah suatu tanggungjawab yang agung. Bagaimanapun, kepada orang-orang Islam Sulu patriotisme dan Islam sangatlah erat hubungannya”.
Maka dapatlah disimpulkan perkataan Suluk itu secara harfiahnya bermaksud orang Islam Sulu yang berpegang kuat dengan ajaran Islam dan sanggup berkorban nyawa demi agama, maruah bangsa dan tanah air tercinta.
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The Warrior / Pahlawan
The Tausug or SULUK people are an ethnic group in the Philippines and Malaysia. The term Tausug was derived from two words tau and sug (on suluk) meaning “people of the current” referring to their homelands in the same thing , with the former being the phonetic evolution in the Philippines of the latter( the L being dropped and thus the two short U’s merging into one long U). the Tausug people in SABAH refer to themselves as Tausug but refers to their race as SULUK as documented in official documents such as birth certificates in Sabah, Malaysia the Tausug are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group.
The history of SULU begins with Makdum, a Muslim missionary, who arrived in SULU in 1380. He introduced the Islamic faith and settled in Tubig Indangan, Simunul. Tawi-tawi until his death.
In 1390, raja Bagunda landed at Buansa and extended the missionary work of Makdum. The Arabian scholar Abu Bakr arrived in 1450, married Bagunda’s daughter, and after Bagunda’s a death, He became sultan , thereby introducing the sultanate as a political system. Political districts were created in Parang, Pansulmlati, Gitung and Luuk, each headed by a Panglima or political leader.
After Abu Bakr’s death, the sultanate system had already become well- established in Sulu. Before the coming of the Spaniards, the ethnic groups in Sulu – the Tausug, Samal, Yakan, and Bajau were in varying degrees united under the Sulu sultanate , considered the most centralized political system in the Philippines.
On 1578, an expedition sent by Gov. Francisco De Sande and headed by Capt. Rodriguez De Figueroa began the 300 years warfare between the Tausug and the Spanish authorities. In 1579, the Spanish government gave De Figueroa the role right to colonize Mindanao. In retaliation, the Muslims raided Visayan towns in Panay, Negros, and Cebu. These were repulsed by Spanish and Visayans forces. In the early 17th century , the largest alliance composed if the Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, other Muslim groups was formed by Sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao. Several expeditions sent by the Spanish authorities suffered defeat. In 1635, Capt. Juan De Chavez occupied Zamboanga and erected a part. In 1637, Gov. Gen. Hurtado De Corcuera personally led an expedition against Kudarat, and triumphed ever his forces at Lamitan and Ilain. On January 1638, De Corcuera with 80 vessels and 2000 soldiers, defeated the Tausug and occupied Jolo. A peace treaty was forged. The victory did not establish Spanish sovereignty over SULU , as the Tausug abrogated the treaty as soon as the Spaniards left in 1646.
In 1737, Sultan Alimud Den I entered into a ‘permanent’ peace treaty with Gov Gen F. Valdez Y tamon, and in 1746, befriended the Jesuits sent to Jolo by King Philip.
In 1893, amed succession controversies, Amirnul Kiram became sultan Jamalul Kiram II, the title being officially recognized by the Spanish authorities. In 1899, after the defeat of Spain in the Spanish American warm col. Luis Huerta, the last Governor of SULU, relinquished his garrison to the Americans (Orosa 1970 – 25 -30)
During the Philippines – American war, the Americans adopted a policy of non-interference in the Muslim areas, as spelled out in the bates agreement of 1899 signed by Brig. Gen. John Bates and Sultan Jamalul Kiram II of Jolo.After the Philippines – American war , the Americans established direct rules ever the newly formed “Moro province, which consisted of five districts – Zamboanga, Lana, Cotabato, Davao and Sulu. Political, social, and economic changes were introduced. These included the creation of provincial and district institutions, the introduction of the public school system and American – inspired judicial system, the imposition of the Cedula or dead tax, the migration of Christians to Muslims lands encouraged by the colonial Government, and the abolition of slavery. These and other factors contributed to Muslim resistance that took 10 years “to pacify”. The department of Mindanao and Sulu replaced the more province on 15 December 1913.
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