Jun 21, 2013

Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari - Is it true he leave Asy'ariyyah ? Benarkah beliau meningalkan Asy'ariyyah ? Answered by Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller

Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
ابو الحسن علي ابن إسماعيل اﻷشعري )

Is it true he leave Asy'ariyyah ?
Benarkah beliau meningalkan Asy'ariyyah ?
 
Answered by 
Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller
 

Benarkah al-Imam Abu Hassan Al-Ash'ari rahimahullah kembali kepada Pemahaman Aqidah Salafi ( seperti kefahaman Wahabi ) ??

Semalam saya melayari laman web para ulama Islam dunia.Tertarik dengan penulisan daripada Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller, salah seorang ulama Islam dari United Kingdom.

Beliau menjawab persoalan yang diajukan oleh seseorang berkenaan sejauh mana kebenaran dakwaan golongan Salafi Wahabi yang mengatakan bahawa al-Imam Abu Hassan Ash’ari rahimahullah sebenarnya telah kembali semula kepada pemahaman aqidah seperti yang dipegang oleh golongan Hanabilah Mujassamah (seperti mana yang dipegang oleh Salafi Wahabi sekarang) sebelum beliau wafat. Malah mereka juga mengatakan bahawa al-Imam bermimpi sekali lagi bertemu Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam setelah beliau kembali kepada pemahaman aqidah Hanabilah Mujassamah tersebut dan Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam memuji tindakan beliau dan mengatakan bahawa jalan yang dipilih sekarang adalah benar.

Jawapan Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller ringkas dan padat. Saya akan cuba memberikan isi penting jawapan yang diberikan oleh Fadhilatul Syeikh buat tatapan umum.

Menurut Fadhilatul Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim , dakwaan al-Imam Ash’ari rahimahullah ( wafat 324 H/936 M) kembali kepada pegangan asal Hanabilah Mujassamah sebelum wafat bukanlah satu dakwaan yang baru dicipta pada zaman sekarang. Sebaliknya perkara ini telah dilakukan oleh golongan Hanbali Mujassim sejak dahulu lagi.Al-Imam al-Hafiz Abi al-Qasim Ali Ibn Asakir (wafat 571H) telah mengkaji secara terperinci sejauh mana kebenaran tersebut berdasarkan ilmu sanad (chains of narrators) yang direka oleh golongan tersebut.Hasil kajian yang dilakukan oleh al-Imam al-Hafidz Ibn Asakir rahimahullah jelas menunjukkan bahawa segala dakwaan dan sanad yang dibawa dan dijadikan hujjah oleh golongan Hanbali Mujassim tersebut (yang mendakwa bahawa al-Imam Ash’ari kembali semula kepada Mazhab mereka)ternyata satu penipuan dan dongengan semata-mata.Perkara ini dijelaskan secara terperinci di dalam kitab beliau yang bertajuk Tabyin Kazbi al-Muftari Fima Nusiba ila al-Imam Abu Hassan al-Ash’ari.Kitab ini ada terdapat di pasaran dan kepada sesiapa yang ingin membuat kajian dengan lebih lanjut maka bolehlah merujuk kepada kitab ini.

Kita juga sering mendengar golongan Salafi Wahabi ini mengatakan bahawa sebelum al-Imam Ash’ari rahimahullah wafat beliau ada menulis kitab al-Ibanah an Usuli al-Diyanah.Golongan salafi mendakwa bahawa tulisan ini menjelaskan secara langsung bahawa Imam Ash’ari benar-benar mengikuti manhaj pemikiran yang mereka inginkan.Adakah benar pernyataan ini?
Al-Imam Zahid Kawthari rahimahullah (wafat 1371 H) menjawab persoalan ini dengan mengatakan bahawa :

Kitab Ibanah adalah merupakan antara penulisan pertama al-Imam Ash’ari rahimahullah setelah keluar daripada Mazhab Muktazilah.Penulisan kitab ini juga bertujuan memberikan kesedaran dan menerangkan kebenaran kepada Barbahari (salah seorang yang berfahaman Hanbali Mujassim wafat pada 328 H)berkenaan aqidah Ahlussunnah wal Jamaah.Sesiapa yang mengatakan bahawa kitab ini adalah kitab yang terakhir maka sebenarnya telah melakukan kesilapan.Lebih-lebih lagi setelah berlakunya perubahan demi perubahan daripada kitab asal Ibanah yang dilakukan oleh para pengikut Barbahari terutamanya setelah berlakunya fitnah aqidah di Baghdad pada ketika itu.Para ulama Syafie’ dijatuhkan dan golongan Hanabilah Mujassamah berkuasa dan menjadikan aqidah mereka sebagai pegangan ketika tersebut.(perkara ini disebutkan oleh al-Imam Ibn Asakir di dalam kitabnya al-Kamal fi al-Tarikh jilid 7 :114)Oleh kerana itulah berlakunya banyak perubahan dan pengkhianatan terhadap kitab al-Imam Ash’ari (Sayf al-Saqil mukasurat 108)."

Hujjah mimpi yang digunakan oleh golongan Salafi Wahabi untuk membenarkan percakapan mereka adalah satu perkara yang tidak boleh diterima.Ini kerana para ulama bersepakat mengatakan mimpi orang biasa selain para Nabi dan Rasul tidaklah boleh menjadi hujjah.Al-Imam Zahid Kawthari rahimahullah menyebutkan:

Golongan Mujassimah ini yang mereka-reka cerita mimpi tersebut.Mereka tidak dapat membuktikan dengan mencari hujah secara nyata maka mereka pun tidur dan setelah terjaga maka mereka pun mengatakan bahawa sebenarnya Imam Ash’ari bermimpi bertemu Rasulullah dan memuji mazhabnya yang baru(yang didakwa oleh golongan Wahabi).Ini semua dilakukan semata-mata untuk memenuhkan isi kitab mereka dengan hujah-hujah dangkal mereka”

Pelik kan? Golongan wahabi sering mengatakan bahawa ahlussunnah wal-Jamaah Asha’irah dan Maturidiyyah menerima hujah berdasarkan mimpi.Sedangkan hakikat yang berlaku sekarang sudah jelas.Siapa sebenarnya yang suka mereka-reka cerita dan melakukan pembohongan kepada umat Islam lainnya?.Melakukan penyelewengan sejarah dan ilmu adalah kerja-kerja mereka sejak dahulu.Pemuka-pemuka mereka telah wujud sejak sebelum Ibn Taimiyah rahimahullah dilahirkan lagi.

Saya akan menerangkan tentang kitab Ibanah dan menyenaraikan serba sedikit penyelewengan golongan ini terhadap Nas asal kitab Ibanah yang ditulis oleh al-Imam Ash’ari rahimahullah pada tulisan yang akan datang.Doakan moga Allah taala memberikan kelapangan waktu dan kesempatan masa untuk menulis.

Sudah jelas lagi bersuluh golongan Salafi Wahabi ini sebenarnya sejak dahulu lagi seperti cacing kepanasan.Bila hujah tidak dapat dijawab dengan baik dan jelas maka mereka akan menghina dan mencaci maki para ulama yang menolak mereka serta menghina peribadi para ulama tersebut.Inikah sikap kita sebagai seorang pengkaji(konon-kononnya)?

Antara hujah dangkal mereka bagi menolak hujah yang diberikan oleh Syeikh al-Allamah Zaini Dahlan rahimahullah ialah dengan mengatakan bahawa sebenarnya Syeikh Zaini Dahlan suka menghisap rokok. Di sebabkan Syeikh Muhammad Abd Wahab mengharamkan rokok maka Syeikh Zaini Dahlan menulis kitab bagi menolak golongan Wahabi.

Beginikah hujah ilmiyah yang mereka canangkan? Inilah yang kita katakan, sudah bodoh sombong pula.Kebenaran sudah di depan mata, tapi kita hairan golongan ini suka mencari publisiti murahan dengan mengikuti golongan-golongan pinggiran yang tinggi di mata mereka.Moga Allah memberikan rahmat dan hidayah pada kita semua.Amin Ya Rabbal A’lamin.

Mohd Nazrul Abd Nasir ,
Rumah Kedah Hayyu 10,
Kaherah Mesir.
Disalin sepenuhnya dari Ustaz Mohd Nazrul Abd Nasir


Menurut Fadhilatul Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim ...
According to Fadhilatul Syeikh Nuh Ha Mim ...

The Re-Formers of Islam
The Mas'ud Questions
© Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1995
Question 2

Imam Ash'ari Repudiating Asha'rism

The Salafis claim that Abul Hasan Ash‘ari formulated the Ash‘ari tenets of Islamic faith (‘aqida) while he was between the Mu‘tazila and Ahl al-Sunna, and that he later refuted his formulations and joined Ahl al-Sunna in the Hanbali madhhab before he died. Is there any truth in this? They say his last book, al-Ibana, contains the refutations. If not, how can I prove it to these people? They also say that he had a second dream in which the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) appeared to him and told him that his Ash‘ari positions were wrong!

Answer

The Ash‘ari school and Maturidi schools have represented the ‘aqida or "tenets of belief" of the majority of Sunni Muslims for more than a thousand years; just as the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi‘i, and Hanbali schools have represented the shari‘a or "Sacred Law" for the majority of Sunni Muslims for this period. Those against these two traditional schools of tenets of faith are people of bid‘a, defined in a fatwa or formal legal opinion by Imam Ibn Hajar Haytami as "whoever is upon other than the path of Ahl al-Sunna wa l-Jama‘a, Ahl al-Sunna wa l-Jama‘a meaning the followers of Sheikh Abul Hasan Ash‘ari and Abu Mansur Maturidi, the two Imams of Ahl al-Sunna" (Haytami, al-Fatawa al-hadithiyya, 280). In the past, such contraventions, aside from Mu‘tazilites, Shiites, and purely sectarian movements, were confined to a handful of mainly Hanbalis, whose bone of contention with the two traditional schools was that neither had anything to do with their literalist, anthropomorphic understanding of Allah Most High, which they promoted by all means at their disposal.

In answer to your question, the claims that Imam Abul Hasan Ash‘ari (d. 324/936) repudiated his own positions are not new, but have been circulated by these Hanbalis for a long time, a fact that compelled the hadith master (hafiz) Ibn ‘Asakir to carefully investigate this question, and the sanads (chains of narrators) for the attribution of these repudiations to Ash‘ari. The results of his research furnished probably the best intellectual biography of Ash‘ari ever done, a book that rebuts these claims thoroughly and uniquivocally, called Tabyin kadhib al-muftari fi ma nusiba ila al-Imam al-Ash‘ari [On showing the untruth of the liars, concerning what has been ascribed to Imam Ash‘ari], that proves that there are liars in all the sanads that impute this to Imam Ash‘ari. The book is in print, and whoever would like the details should read it.

Imam Ash‘ari’s al-Ibana ‘an usul al-diyana [The clarification of the bases of the religion] was not his last book, but rather among the first after he broke with Mu‘tazilism. Imam Kawthari states:

The Ibana was authored at the first of his return from Mu‘tazilite thought, and was by way of trying to induce [n: the Hanbali literalist] Barbahari (d. 328/940) to embrace the tenets of faith of Ahl al-Sunna. Whoever believes it to be the last of his books believes something that is patently false. Moreover, pen after pen of the anthropomorphists has had free disposal of the text—particularly after the strife (fitna) that took place in Baghdad [n: after A.H. 323, when Hanbalis ("the disciples of Barbahari") gained the upper hand in Baghdad, Muslims of the Shafi‘i madhhab were beaten, and anthropomorphism became the faith (‘aqida) of the day (Ibn Athir: al-Kamal fi al-tarikh, 7.114)]—so that what is in the work that contradicts the explicit positions transmitted from Ash‘ari by his own disciples, and their disciples, cannot be relied upon (al-Sayf al-saqil, 108).

This is borne out by hadith master (hafiz) Dhahabi in his Siyar a‘lam al-nubala’ (15.90), as well as Ibn ‘Asakir’s Tabyin kadhib al-muftari. As for seeing dreams, dreams may warm the heart, but they are not a proof for either Islamic law or tenets of faith. In his introduction to Ibn ‘Asakir’s work, Kawthari notes that "the anthropomorphists are the ones who seem to need this [relating of dreams]: when unable to prove their point while awake, they go to sleep, to find the proofs they are looking for while asleep, to fill their books with them" (Tabyin kadhib al-muftari (21–22).

In relation to your questions in general, it is noteworthy that Saudi Arabia has printed and distributed worldwide thousands of copies of a Salafi book called Manhaj al-Asha‘ira fi al-‘aqida [The methodology of the Ash‘aris in tenets of faith] by one Safar Hawali, a professor at Umm al-Qura University in Mecca. It ascribes to the Ash‘ari school the misrepresentations typical of that part of the world, identifying the school with the positions of heretical sects like the Jahmiyya, the Qadriyya, Murjiites, and so on, and contains a number of the things you asked about the Ash‘aris, so I would guess this is the misinformation that your English Salafis are going upon. One can find the details in Hasan Saqqaf’s recent rebuttal of the work entitled Tahni’a al-sadiq al-mahbub, wa nayl al-surur al-matlub, bi maghazala Safar al-maghlub [The greeting of the beloved friend, and attainment of happiness sought, in affectionate discourse with Safar the defeated]. I have heard that Hawali has since moved on from his positions, though I do not know the details.

Saqqaf also talks in his work about the bogus Hanbali "repentances" of various Ash‘ari Imams such as Ash‘ari, Juwayni, and Ghazali, that don’t appear in their books but have rather reached us by sanads each containing an anti-Ash‘ari or two, as is also corroborated by Ibn Subki in his Tabaqat al-Shafi‘iyya al-kubra [The greater compendium of the successive generations of Shafi‘i scholars] under the biographical entries on each of these scholars.

From the wider perspective of Islamic law, these forgeries are rather meaningless, since a Muslim may not believe in the Islamic faith (‘aqida) of Ahl al-Sunna merely because his Imam has said it, but rather because he sincerely believes it is the truth. Scholars say that it is not legally valid to follow qualified scholarship (taqlid) in tenets of Islamic faith (as opposed to rulings of Islamic law) unless one has full conviction of these tenets of faith from one’s own heart—which is why they tell us that one’s faith (iman) by taqlid in such tenets is only legally valid on condition that if one’s Imam were to cease believing something of them, one would not. So the forgeries would seem to have little scholarly relevance, other than to show the lengths to which their perpetrators were willing to go.

Fully copied from masud.co.uk

About Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller

In the name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

Born in 1954 in the farm country of the northwestern United States, I was raised in a religious family as a Roman Catholic. The Church provided a spiritual world that was unquestionable in my childhood, if anything more real than the physical world around me, but as I grew older, and especially after I entered a Catholic university and read more, my relation to the religion became increasingly called into question, in belief and practice. 

One reason was the frequent changes in Catholic liturgy and ritual that occurred in the wake of the Second Vatican Council of 1963, suggesting to laymen that the Church had no firm standards. To one another, the clergy spoke about flexibility and liturgical relevance, but to ordinary Catholics they seemed to be groping in the dark. God does not change, nor the needs of the human soul, and there was no new revelation from heaven. Yet we rang in the changes, week after week, year after year; adding, subtracting, changing the language from Latin to English, finally bringing in guitars and folk music. Priests explained and explained as laymen shook their heads. The search for relevance left large numbers convinced that there had not been much in the first place.   


Thanks for coming

Thanks for coming
Terima kasih sudi hadir

Tajuk - Title